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Lecture 1.3

Element 1- Anatomy: The Thorax

What type of muscle is the diaphragm? Skeletal
Which nerve innervates the diaphragm and what are it's nerve roots? Phrenic nerve, originates from C4/5/6
Describe the action of the diaphragm during respiration It domes downwards to suck air in on an inhale and domes inwards to push air out on an exhale
Where are the intercostal nerves located? Between the ribs
Where is the sternocleidomastoid muscle? Originates from the mastoid and runs to the sternal end of the clavicle
How does the sternocleidomastoid muscle assist with respiration? They lift the ribcage up and away to allow more lung space
Where are the scalenes located? They originate from the transverse process of C2/3/4/5/6/7 and run to the 1st and 2nd rib.
How do the scalene muscles assist in respiration? They lift the ribcage up to expand the lungs
Where are the pecs located? Upper arm to sturnum
How do the pecs assist with respiration? Expand rib cage when the arms are fixed
How do the erector spinal muscles assist with respiration? They extend the spine, therefore allowing the ribcage to expand fully
To which nodes does the majority of lymph from the breast drain? Axillary nodes in the armpit
Where is quadratus lumborum? Joins the iliac crest to the bottom of the 12th rib
How does quadrates lumborum assist with respiration? Fixes the lower part of the ribcage
Is the fibrous pericardium thick or thin? Thick
Does the fibrous pericardium stretch easily? No it doesn't stretch
To what is the fibrous pericardium fused to interiorly? Diaphragm
Is the parietal serous pericardium which or thin? Thin
To what is this parietal serous pericardium adhered to? The fibrous pericardium
What lies between the parietal serous pericardium and the visceral serous pericardium? A small amount of serous/ pericardial fluid
Is the visceral serous pericardium thick or thin? Thin
What is the visceral serous pericardium adhered to? The myocardium
What is the plane that divides the superior and inferior mediastinum called? Plane of Louis
At what vertebral level does the Plane of Louis lie? T4/5
What is the surface landmark of the Plane of Louis Manubo-sternal joint
How many cusps has the left atrioventricular valve got? 2
How many cusps does the right atrioventricular valve got? 3
How does the atrioventricular valve function? Flow of blood pushes muscles and heart strings so the valve opens. Chordae tendinae prevents the valve from inverting
how many cusps are there in each semilunar valve? 3
From where to the right and left coronary arteries arise? aortic sinus
What muscles do the coronary arteries supply? the myocardium
Where does the coronary sinus collect venous blood from? myocardium
From what are the tracheal rings compromised of? cartilage
What type of muscle is the trachealis muscle? smooth
What type of epithelial lining does the trachea have? respiratory epithelium. ciliated to secrete and waft mucous up the trachea to be swallowed. keeps trachea clean
To which structures in the parietal pleura adhered to? thoracic wall and diaphragm
to which structures in the visceral pleura adhered to? lungs
What do the pleuras secrete and into which space? Why? Pleural fluid into the pleural cavity. for lubrication to allow the lungs to expand
Created by: macdonkr