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A&P Chapter 1

Intro to Anatomy & Physiology

anatomy study of structure/form of human body
physiology study of body's functions
list characteristics of living organisms 1. cellular composition 2. metabolism 3. excretion 4. growth 5. reproduction 6. responsiveness/irritability 7. movement
cellular composition cells = basic unit of life; all organisms composed of cells
metabolism chemical reactions 1. anabolism (build up) 2. catabolism (break down)
excretion eliminate potentially harmful waste products
growth anabolism > catabolism 1. increase size individual cells 2. increase number of cells
reproduction 1. individual cells - grow & replace 2. organism yields similar offspring
responsiveness/irritability sense/react to changes/stimuli in environment
movement of individual cells/ materials w/in or btwn cells
list structural levels of organization in human body 1. chemical 2. cellular 3. tissue 4. organ 5. organ system 6. organism
Chemical Level smallest level; atoms - molecules
Cellular Level groups of molecules combined in specific way
Tissue Level 2+ cell types for common function - cells & extracellular matrix
Organ Level 2+ tissue types * recognizable shape & specialized task
Organ System Level body's organs grouped 2+ organs perform broad function
Organism Level human body
types of anatomy 1. systemic 2. regional 3. surface 4. gross 5. microscopic
systemic anatomy individual organ systems
regional anatomy divide by regions
surface anatomy surface markings of body
gross anatomy structures seen w/ unaided eye
microscopic anatomy need microscope e.g. histology & cytology
types of physiology classified by organ/organ system e.g neurophysiology, cardiovascular physiology
principle of homeostasis maintenance of internal environment
Negative feedback loop "corrective" oppose initial change; reduce output
components needed for negative feedback loop 1. receptor (sensor) 2. control center 3. effectors
receptor detects stimulus
control center usually nervous/endocrine systems
effectors cause physiological responses; return variable to normal homeostatic range
difference between negative & positive feedback loops positive - great, quick change negative - corrective
why is negative feedback most commonly used mechanism for homeostasis
relationship of structure & function form of structure is always that best suits its function
gradient present any time more of something exists than another
types of gradients 1. temperature 2. concentration 3. pressure
cell-cell communication IOT coordinate body functions 1. chemical messengers 2. electrical signals
Created by: drogordon