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Study Guide

Leonardo da Vinci famous painted (painted Mona Lisa)
Raphael painted School of Athens painting
Machiavelli wrote "The Prince"
Jan and Hubert Van Eyck developed oil paints
Bruegel used vibrant colors in paintings
Sir Thomas More wrote the book "Utopia"
Shakespeare wrote 37 plays and enriched the English language with 1,700 words
Martin Luther started protestant reformation
Galileo developed first astronomical telescope
Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Castiglione wrote "Book of the Coutier"
Durer spread Italian art techniques to northern Europe
Erasmus created a new Greek and Latin translation of the New Testament
Rabelais was and opinionated French humanist
Johann Guttenberg invented the printing press
Copernicus proposed the heliocentric theory
Kepler calculated the orbits of the planets
Isaac Newton explained the law of gravity
What four areas were affected by the Renaissance? political, social, economical, and cultural
Why did the Europeans feel a rebirth was needed to begin the Renaissance? because the medieval era was a chaotic and un-unified era
In what three ways did the Renaissance differ from the middle ages? greater emphasis in classical learning, greater emphasis on individualism, and adventure and exploration were supported
Name four reasons why the Renaissance began in Italy. Italy was the center of ancient Roman culture, Italian cities became centers of trade and manufacturing, wealthy Italian merchants promoted the Renaissance, and Florence, Italy produced great poets, artists, and scientists
What are worldly subjects? grammar, poetry, history, and art (subjects that have to do with the world and not religious matters)
How were humanist concerns depicted in art? they began to paint people and places instead of just religious symbols
Why did the Renaissance begin 100 years late in northern Europe? they were slow in recovering from the black death
Why did northern humanists believe classical learning was important? to bring about religious and moral reform
What was Sir Thomas Moore's book, Utopia, about? it described what a "perfect" society would look like
What are two things that William Shakespeare is noted for? writing 37 plays and adding 1,700 new words to the Enlgish language
Who learned to make paper first? the Chinese
Name three ways the printing press impacted the Renaissance. books became more available, people learned to read and write, and it allowed ideas of religious reformers to spread
What were three things in the Catholic church that began to upset people, leading to the Reformation? the church was selling indulgences, they increased fees for religious services, and some people feared that the church was becoming too worldly
Where did Luther post his 95 thesis? on the church door in Wittenburg, Germany
What aided Martin Luther's ideas spreading across Europe? the printing press, and the many people that supported his veiws
List the four teaching of Martin Luther. Salvation is achieved through faith alone, good deeds are not necessary, the bible is the sole source of truth, and preists and religious leaders had no special powers
Name three reasons why Lutherism won widespread support. people saw his reforms as an answer to corruption in the Catholic church, German princes saw it as a way to weaken the rule of the Roman Catholic church, and some wanted to seize church property
What happened to cause England to leave the Roman Catholic church? King Henry VIII was not permitted an annulment for his marriage, so he separated from the Catholic church
Why did kind Henry VIII want an annulment? so he could marry someone else and produce a male heir to take the throne
Why did Queen Mary Tudor put her sister, Elizabeth, in prison? Elizabeth was protestant, and Mary thought she was part of a plot to end her
Name two things Elizabeth did to reform religion when she became queen. she replaced Latin with English in churches, and she brought ritual back to the service
Why were people thought to be witches executed? witches were considered to be agents of the devil
What was the scientific method? a new approach to science using complex mathematical calculations to convert observations and experiments into scientific laws
Name three advances in medicine during the scientific revolution. the first detailed study of the human anatomy, new ointments were created, and there was a better understanding of the heart and blood circulation
How did Isaac newton explain the workings of the universe? he stated that gravity controls the movements of the planets and that nature follows uniform laws
What did the catholic church want Luther to do after he posted his 95 thesis? to give up his views (recant)
Created by: alykayhat