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Age of Revolutions

Unit 12 Addison Global Prep

QuestionAnswer
Scientific Revolution Questioned traditional beliefs about the universe. Main idea is the use of the Scientific Method. The Scientific Method uses observation and experimentation to explain theories on how the universe works.
Copernicus, Nicolaus (1473-1543) Polish astronomer who wrote On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. Theorized that the Earth orbited the Sun (heliocentric system) and laid the foundations of modern astronomy.
Galilei, Galileo (1564-1642) Italian astronomer. One of the founders of Europe's scientific revolution, one of his main contributions is the application of the telescope to astronomy. He was able to prove Copernicus’ heliocentric model correct.
heliocentric model Theory of the universe that states the sun is the center, and that the earth revolves around it.
Enlightenment A movement in the 18th century that stressed the importance of reason and science in philosophy and the study of human society. Occurred in Western Europe. (Also known as the Age of Reason)
Locke, John (English) (1632-1704) Philosopher and political theorist. He wrote Two Treaties on Government which explained that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty, and Property, and that the purpose of government was to protect these rights.
Rousseau, Jean Jacques (French) (1712-1778) Writer, Enlightenment philosopher, wrote a book called, The Social Contract, he stated that people were basically good, and that society, and its unequal distribution of wealth, were the cause of most problems. Fought for equal rights.
Baron de Montesquieu (French) (1689-1755) Enlightenment thinker, His book is: The Spirit of the Laws in 1748. Government should divide itself into 3 branches: Judicial, Legislative, and Executive. Branches would Check and Balance the others, this will protect the people's liberty.
Voltaire (French) (1694-1778) Philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
American Revolution Political revolution in the British North American Colonies starting in 1776 that removed the colonies from Great Britain’s control, and established an independent nation know as the United States of America.
French Revolution Political revolution in France starting in 1789 that brought about many changes in France. The revolution ultimately ended with a dictatorship under Napoleon Bonaparte before his defeat by the combined powers of Europe.
Latin American Revolutions Revolutions in Latin American countries beginning in the late 18th century. These revolutions were aimed at overthrowing the European powers that controlled these nations. Many were successful, but few achieved the success of the American Revolution.
Bolívar, Simón (1783-1830) Latin American revolutionary responsible for the ousting of Spain from much of South America during the 19th century. He is considered to be the most important figure in the fight for Latin American independence.
L'Ouverture, Toussaint (1743?-1803) Revolutionary leader who is responsible for ousting France from Haiti during the Latin American Revolutions in the early 19th century.
de San Martín, José (1778-1850) Latin American revolutionary. He is one of the main leaders of the Latin American independence movement.
Created by: eschiavone