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Lecture 1.2

Element 1- Anatomy: The Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
What space does the spinal chord pass though? Vertebral Foreman
What type of joint are the intervertebral discs? Secondary cartilaginous
What are the two parts of the intervertebral discs called? Annulus fibrous (the outside bit) and nucleus pulposus (the middle mushy bit)
Do the erector spine muscles lie anterior or posterior to the transverse process? Posterior
What action do the erector spine muscles have on the spine? Assist and control bends at the waist
Where does the spinal chord start? Foreman magnum
What continues on from the brainstem? Spinal cord
Where does the spinal chord end on an adult L1/2
Via which foreman do spinal nerves exit the vertebrae? Intervertebral foreman
Where is the Cauda Equina? L1/L2, where the spinal chord ends
What is the cauda equine? Why is it formed? Bundle of spinal nerves. They are formed because there is differential rates of growth between the spinal cord and the vertebral column
What is a myotome? Skeletal muscle receiving innervation from a single spinal nerve
What is a dermatome? Area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve
Is the ANS voluntary or involuntary Involuntary
What type of muscle does the ANS supply? Smooth and cardiac
From which part of the CNS do sympathetic fibres arise? T1-L2
Which part of the CNS do parasympathetic fibres arise? Cranial and sacral
From which horn do sensory neurones arise from? Dorsal Horn
From which horn do the parasympathetic neurones arise? Lateral horn
From which horn do motor neurones arise from? Ventral horn
Where are the intercostal nerves located and what type(s) of nerve fibres do they carry? Where do they arise from? Run in between the ribs, arise from the anterior roots of the thoracic spinal nerves at T1 to T11. Primarily carry somatic fibres
Where are the phrenic nerves located and what type(s) of nerve fibres do they carry? Where does it travel to? Arises from C3/4/5. They run pressed up to the fibrous pericardium out side the heart. Connect with the diaphragm. Contains motor and sensory fibres and sympathetic fibres
What does the phrenic nerve control? Motor function: Innervates the diaphragm. Sensory Function: Innervates the central part of the diaphragm, the pericardium and the mediastinal part of the parietal pleura.
Where is the vagus nerve located and what type(s) of nerve fibres does it carry? Where does it travel to? Originates at the brain stem and splits into two. One part carries parasympathetic fibres and travels to the heart and the stomach. The smaller part contains somatic fibres and becomes the recurrent laryngeal nerve+goes to the larynx.
Where is the sympathetic chain located and what type(s) of nerve fibres does it carry? Chain of ganglion located parallel to the spine. Contains sympathetic fibres
What is the purpose of the sympathetic chain? It allows nerve fibres to travel to spinal nerves that are superior and inferior to the one in which they originated.
Which structures is the epi/extradural space between? Bone of the vertebrae and the dura
What is contains in the epi/extradural space? Fat
Why might you insert a needle in to the epi/extradural space? Epidural- pain relief for labour
Which structures is the subdural space between? Dura and the arachnoid mater
Is the subdural a potential or realised space? potential
Which structures is the subarachnoid space between? Arachnoid Mater and the pia mater
What does the subarachnoid space contain? Cerebrospinal fluid
Why might you insert a needle into the subarachnoid space? Lumbar puncture- analysing for meningitis and used for spinal anaesthetic.
What is the pia mater adhered to? Spinal chord
Where do the ribs articulate on the vertebrae? Transverse facet
Which vertebrae do the ribs adhere to? Thoracic vertebrae
What type of joint is the manubriosternal joint? Secondary cartilogious
Which rib articulates at the manubriosternal joint? 2
At which spinal level is the manubrosternal joint? T4/5
Which part of the rib articulates with the body of a vertebra? Head
Which part of the rib articulates with the transverse process of a vertebra? Tubercle
What are true ribs? A rib that is directly attached to the sternum
What are false ribs? Ribs not directly attached to the sternum. Connect to the rib above them using costal cartilage
Does the costal groove lie on the superior or inferior border of the rib? Inferior
What runs in the costal grove of the rib? Intercostal vein, artery and nerve
Where would you insert a needle into the thoracic cage? Above the rib to avoid damaging the structures that run in the intercostal groove.
What forms the borders of the thoracic inlet? the pair of first ribs, first thoracic vertebra and the superior border of the manubrium
Where is the costal margin? The border of the ribs at the bottom of the rib cage
Created by: macdonkr