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Praxis 2 (5622)


abstract reasoning key feature of Piaget's formal operational stage 12+ years
Social Learning Theory Lev Vygotsky - social interaction plays a fundamental role in cognitive development
Operant Conditioning - behaviorism Skinner - changes in behavior are due to an individual's response to stimuli
descriptive research that is a study of the current status of a topic
correlational studies looks for relationships between variables
constructivist theory that places great emphasis on the student as learner and encourages learning through personal experiences; theory that has teacher's individualize instruction for each student
Erikson's first stage of development birth to 18 months, ego development outcome: trust vs. mistrust
Erikson's second stage 18 months to 3 years, ego development outcome: autonomy vs. shame
Erikson's third stage 3 years to 5 years, ego development outcome: initiative vs. guilt
Erikson's fourth stage six to twelve years, ego development outcome: industry vs. inferiority, latency stage
Erikson's fifth stage 12 to 18 years, ego development outcome: identity vs. role confusion
Erikson's sixth stage 18 to 35, ego development outcome: intimacy and solidarity vs. isolation
Erikson's seventh stage 35 to 55, ego development outcome: generativity vs. stagnation or self absorption
Erikson's eighth stage 65 to death, ego development outcome: integrity vs. despair
schema basic building block of intelligent behavior
equilibrium, assimilation and accommodation processes that enable the transition from one stage to another
assimilation using an existing schema to deal with a new situation
accommodation when an existing schema does not work and must be changed to deal with a new situation
object permanence key feature of Piaget's sensorimotor stage - 0-2 years
egocentrism key feature of Piaget's preoperational stage - 2-7 years
conservation key feature of Piaget's concrete operational stage - 7-11
Self-concept general idea concerning how we think about ourselves; developed through actions, reflection, and interactions with others - especially in relation to expectations of self and others;
Self-concept influenced by our previous behaviors and performances and expectations of others toward ourselves
Self-esteem how we feel about or value ourselves; measures the components of self-concept
Piaget stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational
Assimilation interpreting an experience in terms of current ways of understanding
Accommodation change in cognitive structures that produces a corresponding behavioral change; when a child tries the old schema on a new object and molded it to fit the new object
Sensorimotor level of cognitive development Birth - 2 years; thoughts based primarily on senses and motor abilities
Preoperational stage of cognitive development Age 2 - 7; children think mainly in symbolic terms- manipulating symbols used in creative play in the absence of the actual objects involved
Concrete operational stage of cognitive development Age 7- 11; children think in logical terms; children need hands on, concrete experiences to manipulate symbols logically that are performed within the context of concrete situations
Formal operational stage of cognitive development Age 11 - 15; children develop abstract and hypothetical thinking; use logical operations in the abstract rather than concrete
Constructivism students construct their own knowledge when they interact in social ways
Kohlberg's six stages of moral development Preconventional level (Stages 1 and 2) Conventional level (Stages 3 and 4) Postconventional level (Stages 5 and 6) - few people reach these two stages
Preconventional level of moral development egocentric point of view; concrete individualistic perspective; children 4 - 10 respond mainly to reward and punishment
Conventional level of moral development maintrnance of positive relations and the rules of society; children conform to the rules and wishes of society to preserve social order
Postconventional stages of moral development reasoning from an abstract point of view and possessing ideals where precedence takes over particular societal laws; individuals act according to an enlightened conscience
Montessori's three stages of the process of learning 1) introduction to a concept through lesson, book, etc 2)develop understanding through work, experimentation, and creation 3) possessing understanding - demonstrated by passing test, ability to teach another, or express it with ease
Montessori's belief of the environment students learn more from environment and other children than the teacher; teacher should prepare and facilitate environment which nurtures multiple intelligences and learning styles
Dewey's educational approach educations should foster individually, free activity, and learning through experience; cooperative learning; use of fine arts in learning; should prepare children for active participation in the life of the community; education as a social process
Brumer's educational approach learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based on their current and past knowledge; discovery learning; sprialing curriculum; inquiry teaching
zone of proximal development time span where full development depends on full social interaction either with teacher guidance or peer collaboration
scaffolding teacher breaks a complex task into smaller tasks, models the desired learning strategy or task, provides support as students learn to do the task, and the gradually shift responsibility to the student
Types of diversity dialect, immigrant status, socio-economic backgrounds, discipline problems, ethnicity, race, creed/religion, language, culture, social styles, learning styles, scholastic abilities, challenges, lifestyles
English-immersion instruction entirely in English; teachers deliver lessons in simplified English so that the student learn English and academic subjects
English as a second language instruction similar to English immersion but with some support for individuals using their native languages; special class each day to work strictly on English skills
Transitional bilingual education in the student's native language, but there is also instruction each day on developing English skills
Two-way bilingual education (dual-immersion or dual-language) given in two languages to the student; goal in to have student become proficient in both languages; team-teaching
Visual Learning learn through seeing; watch the teacher's body language and facial expressions; learn best from visual displays, diagrams, illustrated books, overheads, videos, flipcharts, and handouts; they take detailed notes
Auditory Learning learn through listening; verbal lectures, class discussions, and listening to what others have to say; read-alouds; listening to a tape recorder or audio program is helpful
Tactile Learning learn through touching; learn best through hands-on; need to actively explore physical world
Kinesthetic Learning learn through moving and doing; need activity and exploration; hard for them to sit still
Concrete experiences being involved in a new experience; learn well through field trips, lab work, or interactive computer games
Reflective observation watching others or developing observations about their own experience; writing in journals or learning logs
Abstract conceptualization creating theories to explain observations; lectures, papers, and text work
Active experimentation using theories to solve problems and make decisions; simulations, case-studies, and active homework;
Active experimentation Gardner's eight multiple intelligences; verbal/linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual/spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
Verbal/linguistic intelligence demonstrate highly developed auditory skills and sensitivity to the meaning and order of words; Learn by: saying, hearing, seeing words; Motivated by: books, recordings, writing, and conversation
Logical-mathematical intelligence demonstrate ability to handle chains of reasoning and recognizing patterns and order;Learn by: explore relationships, patterns, and computing arithmetic in their heads; Motivate by: science kits, games (chess), brainteasers
Visual-spatial intelligence think in mental pictures and images; able to perceive world accurately; Learn: visually with images, pictures, color; Motivated by: films, videos, diagrams, maps, charts, cameras, telescopes, 3D building supplies
Musical intelligence sensitive to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tones; often sing, hum, or whistle to themselves; sensitive to nonverbal sounds (crickets, birds);
Musical intelligence Learn: through melody and rhythm, study effectively with music in background; Motivated by: records, tapes, and musical instruments
Interpersonal intelligence understand people and relationships; "people people;" often leaders; know how to organize, communicate, mediate, and manipulate; many friends; Motivate by: peer-group opportunities, school and community activities
Intrapersonal intelligence ability to assess their own emotional life; powerful sense of self and shy away from groups to work alone; Learn: isolated, alone; Motivated by: private space and independence
Naturalist intelligence observe nature and discrete patterns and trends; recognize species, environmental changes
Differences between sexes Girls - memorization; evaluate their own learning; perform well in reading activities but lack the self-confidence in mathematics; express emotions with words
Differences between sexes oration strategies; assistance in planning, organizing, and structuring their learning; perform well in mathematics but lack confidence in reading activities; express emotions through action
4MAT Curriculum Development Model allows teachers to create approaches that reflect the four different learning styles, eight multiple intelligences, and the individual differences of the students; cyclical; Why? What? How? If?
Why questions in 4MAT initiate discussion, thought, and motivation; reinforce brainstorming, speaking, understanding and listening to other ideas, building off of those ideas
What activities in 4MAT foster adapting the ideas and observations into concepts through analytical thinking; reinforce classification, conceptualizations, and development of patterns and connections
How thinking in 4MAT leads to reasoning and building common sense and practicing with trial and error; reinforce manipulation of ideas into concrete proposals, experimentation, and association of concepts with realistic entities
If questions of 4MAT development and deduction of "if" questions to help students become aware of their thought process and their ability to teach others; reinforce collaboration, adaptation of ideas with other ideas, and exploration of their intuition
Objectives statement that addresses behaviors and knowledge and is observable, detectable, and measurable
Teacher-directed learning activities demonstration, guided practice, mastery learning, independent practice, questioning, study skills, modeling, whole group discussion, and transitions
Madeline Hunter's direct instruction model outline of lesson: objectives, standards of performance and expectations, anticipatory set or advance organizer, the teaching (input, modeling and demo, direction giving, and checking for understanding), guided practice and monitoring, closure, & practice
David Ausbel's advance organizer organizer is introduced before the learning begins and are presented at a higher level of abstraction; bridges between previous knowledge and new learning material
Student-centered learning activities collaborative learning, cooperative learning groups, concept development, discovery learning, independent study, inquiry, interdisciplinary and integrated study, project-based learning, simulations, units
Bloom's Taxonomy cognitive domain, affective domain, and psychomotor domain
Cognitive Domain knowledge and development of attitude and skills
Affective Domain growth in feelings, emotional areas, and attitudes
Psychomotor Domain manual or physical skills
Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain Knowledge - recall of facts and terms; Comprehension - understand fact and terms and can interpret meaning of material;
Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain Application - ability to use learned concepts and principals in new situations; Analysis - ability to break down material into its component parts so that the organizational structure may be understood;
Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain Synthesis - ability to put together parts to create a new whole; use creative behaviors to formulate new patterns and structure; Evaluation - ability to judge the value of material for a give purpose; based on either internal or external definite criteria
Alternative or authentic assessment students originate a response to a task or question; demonstrations, exhibits, portfolios, oral presentations, or essays
traditional assessment test/quiz - multiple choice, short-answer, true-false, or essay
Norm-referenced standardized tests indicates that the performance results of the students who take this test are compared with the results of other students taking the test
Criterion-referenced standardized test compare students' knowledge and achievement in an academic area to those objectives of the curriculum established by the state standards
Performance assessments scored based on pre-established rubric
Formative assessment intended to aid learning by providing feedback about what has been learned so far and what remains to be learned
Summative assessment measure of the students' achievement at the completion of a block of work (end-of-unit test)
Holistic scoring each element of a student's work is used to assess the total quality of the student's work and receives one score; use rubric
Analytic scoring one score is given after separate grades are recorded for each element of the student's work based on whether the elements are correct or not; quality is not considered
Intrinsic motivation from within; self-determination; students want to learn
Extrinsic motivation from without; need external incentives - stickers or candy
Humanistic approach to motivation uses Maslow's Hirtachy of needs; security, social, esteem, physiological, and self-actualization
Behavioral approach to motivation uses reinforcement or extrinsic rewards
Cognitive approach to motivation based on learning-goal theory, self-monitoring and reflective behaviors, and self-evaluation
Attribution Theory approach to motivation centered around social cognitive needs of the students; allows students to blame or credit their own performance or nonperformance
developmentally appropriate programs (DAP) based on knowledge of the individual development levels of the students; strategies/methods based on needs of students in the areas of cognition, physical activity, emotional growth, and social adjustment
Techniques for effective classroom management Expectations written down; Be consistent; Have more than one activity per lesson; Involve other students during presentations; Discipline in private; Always have a sense of humor; Ask for help when you need it; Take roll while students are working
Assertive Dicipline Model of management plan names of students showing inappropriate behavior are written in book (not board); teach desired behaviors, gives positive reinforcement, invokes discipline plan; (teacher insist on responsible behavior, use firm but humane control
Five steps to assertive discipline 1. recognize and remove roadblocks 2. practice the use of assertive response styles 3. set limits for every activity 4. follow through on limits 5. implement a system of positive assertions
Kounin's effective classroom management techniques 1. showing students that you are with-it (with-it-ness) 2. cope with overlapping situations 3. maintain smoothness and momentum in activities 4. trying to keep whole class involved 5. introduce variety and be enthusiastic
Created by: aaw


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