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GI Anatomy 1

Anatomy Mouth to Stomach

List 4 potential causes of dysphagia Stroke, Parkinsons disease, MS, mouth/oesophageal cancer
What is dysphagia? Inability or difficulty swallowing
Which muscle forms the floor of the mouth? Mylohyoid
What is the vestibule? The area between the lips and teeth
What is the oral cavity? The area behind the teeth and gums anterior to the oropharynx
What are gingivae? Gums
Which nerves supply teeth and gums? Superior and inferior alveolar nerves
Which ligament anchors teeth into their sockets (alveoli)? Periodontal ligaments
What vessel supplies blood to the tongue? Lingual artery
What vessel drains blood from the tongue? Lingual vein
Where does all lymph from the tongue drain to? Deep cervical nodes
Which epithelium covers the tongue and palate? Non-keratinised squamous
Which nerves supply motor innervation to the tongue? Hypoglossal (CN XII)
Which nerve carries taste information from the tongue to the brain? Chorda tympani branch of facial nerve (CN VII) and glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
What is deglutition? Swallowing
What happens in the third stage of swallowing? A wave of peristalsis moves bolus down the oesophagus
Which artery supplies blood to the palate? Branches of maxillary artery
Which nerve supplies sensory innervation to the palate? Maxillary division of CN V2
Which nerves supply motor innervation to the palate? Pharyngeal plexus
Which group of muscles elevate the larynx? Suprahyoid muscles
Which muscles are part of the suprahyoid group? Mylohyoid, geniohyoid, stylohyoid, digastrics
Which group of muscles depress the larynx? Infrahyoid muscles
Which muscles are part of the infrahyoid group? Sternohyoid, omohyoid, sternothryoid, thyrohyoid
Where is the nerve supply to the pharynx derived from? The pharyngeal plexus
Where is the opening of the parotid duct? The hard palate
Where does the submandibular duct/Wherton duct open? Either side of the lingual frenulum
Where is the opening of the sublingual duct? Beneath the tongue (also known as the ducts of Rivinus)
Which nerves pass through the parotid gland? Facial and great auricular nerves
Which arteries pass through the parotid gland? External carotid, superior temporal and maxillary arteries
Which vein passes though the parotid gland? Retromandibular vein
Where is the first oesophageal narrowing? Cricopharyngeal sphincter (C5)
Where is the second oesophageal narrowing? Aortic arch
Where is the third oesophageal narrowing? L main bronchus
Where is the fourth oesophageal narrowing? Gastrooesophageal junction / cardiac sphincter
What are rugae? Folds in the stomach mucosa
List 4 differentials for indigestion IBS, hiatial hernia, gall stones, peptic ulcer disease
At which vertebral level does the oesophagus begin? C6
What type is the oesophageal epithelium? Stratified squamous
Which region of the mediastinum does the oesophagus pass through? Posterior mediastinum
What are the anterior relations of the stomach? Anterior abdominal wall
What are the posterior relations of the stomach? Spleen, kidney, pancreas, transverse colon
What are the superior relations of the stomach? Diaphragm
What is the oesophageal blood supply (in descending order)? Inferior thyroid artery, branch of thoracic aorta, left gastric artery
Where does oesophageal lymph drain to? Posterior mediastinal and left gastric nodes
Where do the veins carrying blood from the stomach drain to? Portal system
Where does lymph from the stomach drain to? Coeliac nodes
Created by: sallyelphick