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Neuroanatomy Lab 6

Motor Systems

Corticospinal descending motor tract: give origin, position of motor neurons, and muscles affected; mnemonic to remember postion Cortex, most lateral, most distal; cory rubs red vests (lateral to medial)
rubrospinal descending motor tract: give origin, position of motor neurons, and muscles affected red nucleus, a bit less lateral, a bit less distal
reticulospinal descending motor tract: give origin, position of motor neurons, and muscles affected reticular formation, medial, more axial
vestibulospinal descending motor tract: give origin, position of motor neurons, and muscles affected vestibular nuclei, most medial, most axial
muscle control: cerebellum vs. cortex cerebellum exerts its control over the ipsilateral side of the body, whereas the cortex exerts its control generally over the contralateral side of the body
3 main lobes of the cerebellum, and the fissures that separate them flocconodular lobe is separted from the posterior lobe by the larger posterolateral fissure; posterior lobe and anterior lobe are separated by the primary fissure
how many lobules does the cerebellum have? 10
superior view of cerebellum: positions of vermis, paravermis, and cerebellar hemispheres vermis--most medial
connections between inferior cerebellar peduncle and cerebellum inputs from spinal cord and brainstem; bi-directional connections of cerebellum and vestibular nuclei; projections from cerebellum to the reticular nuclei
middle cerebellar peduncle inputs to cerebellum cerebellar inputs from contralateral pontine nuclei
superior cerebellar peduncle and cerebellum mainly outputs from cerebellum
how does the middle cerebellar peduncle connect to the cerebellum? laterally and posteriorly
three functionally distinct parts of cerebellum spinocerebellum, vestibulocerebellum, and cerebrocerebellum
what inputs are received by the cerebrocerebellum? contralateral pontine nuclei via the middle cerebellar peduncle
outputs of cerebrocerebellum project back to motor and premotor cortical areas after stopping in VL thalamus
what is the cerebrocerebellum involved in? motor planning and initiation of movement
what is the function of the spinocerebellum? coordinate motor control during motor execution
what region of the cerebellum does the spinocerebellum refer to? vermis and paravermis
what does vermis coordinate? medial (axial) systems
what input does the vermis receive? vestibular and reticular nuclei and proprioceptive and sensory inputs from the head and neck
what does paravermis control? activity of lateral motor systems (limb movement) during ongoing motor activity
what information does paravermis receive? information on limb position from the spinal cord (ascending spinocerebellar tracts)
what lobe does the vestibulocerebellum occupy? flocculonodular lobe
Whence does the vestibulocerebellum receives its input? vesitibular nuclei
main efferent projection of vestibulocerebellum? back to vestibular nuclei
what is the vestibulocerebellum mainly responsible for? coordinating eye movements and body equilibrium
output cells of cerebellar cortex purkinje cells
which neurons of the cerebellum project axons that leave the cerebellum? purkinje cells
are purkinje cells excitatory or inhibitory? inhibitory
deep cerebellar nuclei to which purkinje cells make connections Feel Good Each Day (fastigial, globose, embolliform, dentate); both embolliform and dentate are interposed nuclei
fastigial nucleus receives inputs from what, and projects to what? vermis, reticular formation
inputs received and projected by the interposed nuclei paravermis, red nucleus
inputs received and projected by the dentate nucleus purkinje cells in cerebrocerebellum; projects to motor thalamus
does vestibulocerebellum project to a deep nucleus? No
what cells send axons directly to vestibular nuclei purkinje cells
two main excitatory outputs that converge upon purkinje cells mossy fibers and climbing fibers
four main components of mossy fibers pontine nuclei (largest), spinal cord, reticular formation (smallest), and vestibular nuclei
give peduncle origin and destination of all four mossy fibers: pontine nuclei, spinal cord, reticular formation, vestibular nuclei middle, hemispheres; inferior, paravermis; inferior, vermis; inferior, vermis and clocculonodulus
axons of cerebellar granule cells relative to purkinje cells fibers run perpendicular to rows of purkinje cells, leading to a diffuse mossy fiber signal
what contributes to the divergence of the mossy fiber signal? parallel fibers contacts multiple purkijje cells and a single purkinje cells receives inputs from multiple parallel fibers
origin of climbing fibers contralateral inferior olivary nucleus
peduncle through which climbing fibers travel on their way to the purkinje cells inferior cerebellar peduncle
how many climbing fibers synapse on a single purkinje cell? Just one
what is the possible function of collateral projections by mossy and climbing fibers? may be to compare the strength and timing of these diffuse and direct signals
role of basal ganglia receive descending motor information from motor/premotor cortex, process it, and send information on the results back to motor/premotor cortex after stopping in thalamus (VA/VL)
on which side of body does basal ganglia influence movement? contralateral side
"striatum" putamen and caudate nucleus
where do all cortical inputs to basal ganglia terminate? caudate nucleus and putamen
two parts of globus pallidus globus pallidus internal, globus pallidus external
basal ganglia substantia nigra, globus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus
neurotransmitters used by substantia nigra dopamine for pars compacta (SNc), and parts reticulata (SNr) does not, but is more functionally similar to GPi.
outputs of basal ganglia GPi and SNr, which terminate on VA/VL, which then project to motor/premotor cortex through anterior limb of internal capsule
most imporant role for basal ganglia gate for motor activity--to allow desired motions and to prevent undesired ones
two main pathways of basal ganglia output direct pathway and indirect pathway
direct pathway disinhibits command and allows it to be executed
indirect pathway increases level of inhibition to prevent execution of motor command
principal projection and transmitter used at destination for SNc to striatum where dopamine (DA) acts to stimulate motor activity
D2 receptors enkephalin (Enk)-containing striatal neurons that inhibit the indirect pathway
D1 receptors found on substance P (SP)-containing striatal neurons that participate in the direct pathway
common manifestation of cerebellar lesions ataxia
dysmetria errors in the range and force of movement
dysdiadochokinesia inability to sustain regular repeated movements: no smooth transitions between components of comlex multi-joint movements
presentations of gait ataxia delay in initiating movements with affected limb, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia
how does hypotonia present? diminished resistance to passive limb displacements or a delay in response to rapid movements (lack of check)
intention tremor characteristic of cerebellar disease; result from an inability to coordinate the activity of agonist and antagonist muscles and occur during attempts at specific motions
what happens if there is damage to the vestibulocerebellum? general loss of equilibrium and balance
what do lesions in the cerebellar vermis lead to? disturbances in axial muscle systems, which may manifest as titubation
what is titubation? tremors in the trunk during standing or sitting
what is dysarthria difficulty in articulating speech with no deficits in speech/language comprehension
what lesions can cause dysarthria? vermal lesions; vermis contributes to control of facial muscles (Gk. arthron=articulation)
what does damage to lateral portions of cerebellum lead to? delays i nmovement initiation and movement decomposition, as motor planning is impaired
what are the most severe cerebellar lesions? affect deep nuclei and superior cerebellar peduncle
on what side of the body are deficits of the limb observed with cerebellar damage? ipsilateral side
athetosis slow, writhing movements of the fingers and hands (Gk. athetos, without position)
chorea abrupt movements of the limbs/facial muscles (Gk. khoreia=dancing in unison, from khoros=chorus
ballismus violent flailing of limbs (Gk. ballismo=dancing)
lesions of basal ganglia produce what kind of movements involuntary movements
what four involuntary movements does a lesion in basal ganglia produce? resting tremor=rhythmic, oscillatory movements at rest; athetosis; chorea; ballismus
Parkinson's disease pathophysiology degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway (projection from SNc to striatum)
Hungtington's disease pathophysiology degeneration of cholinergic and GABA-ergic neurons in the striatum which project to GPe
Tardive dyskinesia pathophysiology upregulation of dopamine receptors leading to hypersensitivity to dopamine, caused by long-term treatment with antipsychotic agents
hemiballismus pathophysiology unilateral damage to the subthalamic nucleus
Created by: matthewthomp