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Final Review

Ap European History Ch. 12-20, 22

Describe Feudalism. Peasants give to knights, knights give to nobles, nobles give to the king. The king gives land to the nobles, the nobles give land to the knights, the knights give land to the peasants.
What was the language of the Catholic Church? latin
Dynastic not Nationalistic leaders often controlled people of multiple languages & ethnicities; dynasty- religion & rulers meant more than identity
Influence of Roman Empire People believed that the Roman Empire was the ideal state - "universal" control of Europe
Fall of Western Roman Empire 476 AD
Fall of Byzantine Empire 1453 AD
Great Schism 1054 AD Pope was the leader, orthodox organized by national level, there were differences in belief
The Little Ice Age 1300-1400s poor harvests, decreased nutrition - poor health
Black Death, Bubonic Plague 1346-53, across Europe in 4 years, 1/3-1/2 of the population died, returned repeatedly until 18 c. poor sanitation; boils, death in 3 days
Responses to the Plague belief that it was God's wrath, effects of overpopulation decreased, helped lead to reformation; laymen were allowed to perform sacraments because so many priests were dead
peasant revolts all across Europe, declining income for peasants, rising taxation
Hundred Years War 1337-1453; Frech denied English Edward II land in France; Philip VI as king of France; France won because of Joan of Arc
Effects of Hundred Years War nationalism, english kings had to negotiate with nobles for money
Magna Carta first restriction on Kings power, to tax obles, Parliament has to agree
Babylonian Captivity Philip IV of France convinced Pope Clement V to more from Italy to France (Avignon) in 1309 power play, end yrs. altered in 1377, 66
2nd Great Schism Didn't like Urba, so cardinals chose Clement VII, nations took sides, 3rd pope elected 1409, Martin V in 1417 ended great schism; two resigned one kicked out.
Counciliarists balance power of pop with council or cardinals (1324-1400s)
John Wycliffe: translated NT to English, taught church had gotten away from Bible and needed change
Jan hus/ John Huss: Czech reformer who challenged Catholic doctrines int he same way that Martin Luther would later. Burned by Council of Constance in 1415
Vernacular Literature Geoffrey Chaucer "Canterbury Tales"; Dante Alighieri - "The Divine Comedy; language of the people
Three Simultaneous Crises Babylonian Captivity, Hundred Years War; Black Death
End of middle ages feudalism weakening; population decreased; church's authority decreased; magna cart; increased nationalism; french king's power increased; reasons for reform in the church
Medieval Art ad Architecture 2D; size of peopl unrealistic, shows importance; religious themes more common; clothing & structures looked like artist's time, not time period being depicted
gothic architecture pointed arch; ribbed vault flying buttresses
Italia Renaissance 1350 to 1500s
Where did the Italian Renaissance start? Florence, Italy
Petrarch scholar & poet; Father of REnaissance Humanism; study of history and literature is valuable; recovered & promoted classical manuscripts
secularism emhpasis on this worls, not just religious beliefs
humanism human potential and improvement, study
individualism artists seen as individual geniuses; emphasis on human dignity
New Renaissance art more realistic; individuality; nudity introduced since ancient times; religious ad classical themes, also daily life; balance &proportion
Lorenzo Valla father of analytical scholarship; "Donation of Constantine" medieval forgery;
Printing Press ideas could be copied and printed more easily; books became cheaper; invented by Gutenberg in 1440
Clocks standardized time
Medici Family power and wealth through banking; cosimo, piero and lorenzo ruled florence; excommunicated and executed; returned in 1512
Machiavelli wrote "The Prince"; wrote how things were, not how he wished them to be; criticized by many, but the strategies he recommended were actually in practice
HRE intended as a revival of the Western Roman Empire; pope is leader; Habsburgs controlled it from 1400 to 1918
The Ottoman Empire challeged Europe for control of Mediterraean
Where did Power shift after Italy? Portugal then Spain
Sir Thomas More English Christian Humanist; "Utopia", executed for sticking to his principles
Erasmus Dutch Christian Humanist; new editions of the GReek and Latin New Testaments; "In Praise of Folly" criticized abuses in the Catholic Church and bad government in general, but remained a Catholic
Pragmatic Sanction 1713; Charles VI; to ensure that the Habsburg hereditary possessions could be inherited by a daughter
Spanish Reconquista Muslims and Jews had to convert or leave; conversos- loss of intellectual capital & ability; Hermandades- vigilante groups that kept order & enforced behavior
Spanish Inquisition to find Conversos who secretly hadn't converted - they were resented by other Spaniards because they tended to have influence & high positions - Inquisitions used torture
Clerical Abuses that led to Reformation immoral priests; ignorance (faked latin, illiteracy); pluralism/absenteeism; idulgences
Indlugences Pope Leo X needed money to finish construction of St. Peter's Basilica; ignited reformation
95 these 1517; printing press made them available to a vast audience
Diet of Worms tried to force Luther to recant; declared and outlaw
What language did Luther translate the NT into? German
Peasants Revolts after 1517 religious change caused peasants to believe there could be political change; Luther did not agree
Zwingli swiss had similar to Luther's ideas, but believed Eucharist was a memorial
John Calvin 1509-1564; set out to establish a truly Christian society in Geneva -1541; believed in theocracy; predestination
influences of calvinism huguenots; presbyterians; women allowed to participate in church
Anabaptists first to baptize adults; religious toleration; pacifism
Henry VII of England 1491-1547; obsessed with having a male child; started Chruch of England
Supremacy Act made Henry VII supreme head of church in England;
Edward VI 9 years old- ehlish reformation continued
Bloody Mary marries philip II of spain- tried to force England back to Catholicism
Elizabeth I enforced CHurch of England, but didn't care what people privately believed as long as they didn't cause trouble (Elizabethan Settlement)
Reform in the Catholic Church slow-popes preoccupied; council of trent attempted reconciliation with Protestants; equal value of scripture and tradition; emphasis on education; baroque art style affirmed
Created by: 3j0mk1