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RS Anatomy

Respiratory System Anatomy- Pterygopalatine fossa

What is the pterygopalatine fossa? An inverted tear drop shaped spaces that lies between bones of the skull, like lateral pterygoid plate, posterior wall of maxilla, and the sphenoid bone
The pterygopalatine fossa is also called: Sphenopalatine fossa
Why is this fossa important? It has contents that give blood and nerve supply (sensory, parasympathetic, and sympathetic) to the nose, palate, orbit, and pharynx
What bones border the pterygopalatine fossa? 1) The sphenoid bone 2) The lateral pterygoid plate 3) Posterior wall of maxilla 4) Lateral surface of palatine
Which bone forms the roof and the posterior wall of the fossa? The sphenoid bone
Which bone forms the posterior of the fossa? The lateral pterygoid plate
Which bone forms the anterior of the fossa? The posterior wall of the maxilla
Which bone forms the medial wall of the fossa? The lateral surface of the palatine bone
How does the pterygopalatine fossa communicate with the infratemporal fossa? Through the pterygomaxillary fissure (which lies between the pterygoid and maxilla)
Which structures pass through the pterygomaxillary fissure? The maxillary nerve and artery. but in opposite directions
What part of the maxillary artery passes through the pterygomaxillary fissure TO THE pterygopalatine fossa? The third part
What structure passes towards the infratemporal fossa? Maxillary nerve
Which foramen is the largest? The sphenopalatine foramen
Which foramen is medial to the pterygopalatine fossa? The sphenopalatine foramen
Which bone is the sphenopalatine foramen located in? The palatine bone
Nerves and arteries enter through this foramen to: The nasal cavity
The sphenoid bone provides the communication between the pterygopalatine fossa and middle cranial fossa by which two foramina? 1) The foramen rotundum 2) Inferior to the foramen rotundum; the pterygoid canal
How does the maxillary nerve pass from the middle cranial fossa to the pterygopalatine fossa? Through the foramen rotundum
The pterygoid canal starts from : The middle cranial fossa to the pterygopalatine fossa
Which structure passes through the pterygoid canal? The nerve of the pterygoid canal
What is the foramen lacerum? A foramen that lies at the base of the skull
What is the roof of the foramen lacerum made up of? Cartilage and occupied by the internal carotid artery
Where is the pterygoid canal located? In the cartilage of the foramen lacerum
So what makes up the superior part of the pterygoid canal? The internal cartoid artery that goes to the cavernous sinus
How does the pterygopalatine fossa communicate with the nasopharynx? Superioposteriorly through the palatovaginal canal
What structures pass through the palatovaginal canal? The pharyngeal branches of arteries and nerves coming from the pterygopalatine ganglion --> to the nasopharynx
What are the 3 posterior communications? 1) Foramen rotundum 2) Pterygoid canal with the middle cranial fossa 3) The palatiovaginal canal with the nasopharynx
What is the canal between the pterygopalatine fossa and oral cavity? The palatine canal
Which structures pass through the palatine canal? The palatine nerve and vessels
Each palatine vessels give: Greater and lesser palatine
The lesser palatine is for the: Soft palatine
The greater palatine is for the: Hard palatine and nose
Another communication between the pterygopalatine fossa and the oral cavity is through the: Inferior orbital fissure
Which structure enter through the inferior orbital fissure: The maxillary nerve and artery
In the orbital cavity, these vessels end as: The infraorbital nerve and vessels
What are the major contents of the pterygopalatine fossa? 1) Maxillary nerve 2) Terminal part of maxillary artery 3) Nerve of pterygoid canal 4) Pterygopalatine ganglion 5) Veins and lymphatics
What type of nerve is the maxillary nerve? Sensory branch of the trigeminal ganglion
What is the main nerve supply to the nose? Maxillary nerve
What does the maxillary nerve also supply? 1) The orbit 2) Pharynx 3) Palate
What is the pathway of the maxillary nerve? 1) It lies in the middle cranial fossa 2) Reaches the pterygopalatine fossa through the foramen rotundum 3) Goes to the infratemporal fossa through the pterygomaxillary fissure 4) It returns to the inferior orbital fissure to enter the orbital cavity
In the pterygomaxillary fissure, the maxillary nerve gives: The posterior superior alveolar branch on the posterior wall of the maxilla
The posterior superior alveolar branch supplies the: Molar and premolar teeth, buccal gingivae, and maxillary air sinus
In the inferior orbital fissure, the maxillary nerve gives: The middle superior alveolar branch and anterior superior alveolar branch
The middle superior alveolar branch supplies the: Premolars
The anterior superior alveolar branch supplies the: Canines and incisors
Which branch of the maxillary nerve enters the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure? The zygomatic branch
The zygomatic branch gives 2 branches: 1) Zygomaticotemporal branch 2) Zygomaticofacial nerve
The zygomaticotemporal branch carries: Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers
The zygomaticotemporal branch carries these fibers to: The lacrimal nerve
Where does the lacrimal nerve go? The lacrimal gland Then, the skin of the temporal
What is the zygomaticofacial nerve? The sensory nerve to the skin of zygome
Where does the maxillary nerve continue in the orbital cavity? It passes in the floor of the orbital cavity, then through a groove called the orbital groove, then orbital canal, then exits from the infraorbital foramen to terminate as the infraorbital nerve
Maxillary artery is a branch of: The External carotid artery
The pathway of the maxilary artery: 1) It passes deep to the neck of mandible. 2)Then,in the infratemporal fossa,the lateralpterygoid muscle divides the artery into three parts
Where do the three parts go? 1st part before the lateral pterygoid muscle 2nd part superficial or deep to the lateral pterygoid muscle 3rd part after the lateral pterygoid muscle
What are the relations of the 1st part of the maxillary artery? Medial: the sphenomandibular ligament Lateral: the neck of mandible Above: Auriculotemporal nerve Below: the maxillary vein.
What are the branches of the 1st part of the maxillary artery? Inferior alveolar nerve Middle meningeal nerve Accessory middle meningeal Other two arteries pass to the ear through the external auditory meatus
The inferior alveolar nerve goes to: The mandibular foramen then the mandibular canal to the lower teeth
The middle meningeal nerve goes: Upwards and enters the foramen spinosum
The accesory middle meningeal enters: Foramen ovale and they go to the middle cranial fossa from the base of skull to the middle cranial fossa
What are the relations of the 2nd part of the maxillary artery? Superficial or deep to the lateral pterygoid muscle
What are the branches of the 2nd part of the maxillary artery? 5 branches to the muscles of mastication: Temporalis muscle , Masseter muscle Lateral pterygoid muscle Medial pterygoid muscle
What are the relations of the 3rd part of the maxillary artery? Passes from the infratemporal fossa through the pterygomaxillary fissure to reach the pterygopalatine fossa
What are the branches of the 3rd part of the maxillary artery? Orbital branches,pharyngeal branches Sphenopalatine artery(short and long) Palatine(greater/lesser) It gives posterior,middle and anterior superior alveolar Infraorbital artery;3 branches palpebral ,nasal, superior labial Artery of pterygoid canal
What is the nerve of the pterygoid canal? A plexus of nerves that are found around the internal carotid artery
It contains two types of fibers : Parasympathetic fibers ( form the greater petrosal nerve) & sympathetic fibers (from deep petrosal nerve)
These two together pass in the pterygoid canal from the middle cranial fossa to the pterygopalatine fossa and end in: The Pterygopalatine ganglion
So, the origin of the nerve of the pterygoid canal is: 1)Deep petrosal (sympathetic) which has started from the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion , 2)Greater petrosal(parasympathetic) which starts from the geniculate ganglion of facial nerve in the brain.
Pterygopalatine ganglion are called: Parasympathetic ganglion
Why are they considered parasympathetic? The greater petrosal nerve which carries the parasympathetic fibers synapse in this ganglion (pre and post ganglionic) There is synapse for the parasympathetic fibers
Unlike, the greater petrosal, the deep petrosal carries sympathetic fibers which are: Postganglionic only It can't synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion
The postganglionic fibers of both nerve: Pass through the branches through the maxillary nerve
When the maxillary nerve reaches the pterygopalatine fossa it gives two nerves called: Twigs of nerves (sensory)
The branches of the maxillary nerve together with the fibers from the ganglion go to: 1) The periosteum, sphenoidal and ethmoidal sinuses 2) The nasopharynx 3) Nose through sphenopalatine foramen (long and short) 4) Palatine nerve through palatine canal 5) Inferior orbital fissure as zygomaticotemporal and zygomaticofacial (Sheet 11)
What's the innervation of the lacrimal gland? Lacrimal nerve that receives the parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers through the zygomaticotemporal branch
Veins generally follow which direction? The direction opposite to the arteries
The maxillary vein meets in the parotid gland with: Superficial temporal and unite to form retromandibular vein
Retromandibular vein divides into: Anterior division and posterior division
The posterior division unites with the posterior auricular to form: External jagular vein.
The anterior division unites with the facial to form: The common facial vein.
Pterygoid plexus may communicate through emissionary veins with the: Cavernous sinus
Upper part may also reach the cavernous sinus through the: Opthalmic vein
Created by: Ulaisl
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