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Muscular System

Written test for muscular system

what are the components of a sarcomere? Z line: thin filaments attach to one another. M line represent where thick filaments attach. H zone: made up of thick filaments only. I bands: made up of thin filaments only. A bands: overlapping thick and thin filaments.
what are isotonic contractions? Increasing tension overcomes the load so the muscle shortens and load moves; myosin bridges form and thin filaments slide (concentric and eccentric contraction)
what are isometric contractions? increasing tension does not overcome the load so no muscle shortening occurs; myosin bridges form but thin filaments don't slide
What are the characteristics of skeletal muscle? Makes up skeletal muscles, has longest cells of all muscle types, striated, voluntary, contract rapidly and vigorously, but tire easily, tremendous power, multinucleated
what are the characteristics of cardiac muscle? Found only in heart, striated, involuntary, uni- or binucleated
what are the characteristics of smooth muscle? Found in visceral organs, non-striated, involuntary, uninucleated, contractions are slow and sustained
what are the functions of muscle tissue? movement of body, blood and food, posture maintenance, and heat generation
what are the functional characteristics of muscle tissue? Excitability, contractility, extensibility, and elasticity
what are the arrangements of muscle fibers? Parallel, penate, convergent, and circular
what is the affect of nerve stimulation on the muscle fiber? nerve stimulus causes the releases of Ca++ from sarcoplasmic reticulum; neuron+muscle fiber=neuromuscular junction
what are the 3 pathways muscles use to generate ATP? and how much ATP do each create? creatine phosphate: 1 ATP per creatine phosphate molecule; only last up to 15 seconds. Aerobic respiration: 36 ATP per glucose molecule. Anaerobic respiration: 2 ATP per glucose molecule
what is oxygen debt? extra amount of oxygen that must be repaid before resting conditions are restored
what are the various benefits of aerobic exercise? 2 Increased # of capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin=increased muscle endurance, strength, and resistance to fatigue. Increased metabolism, GI mobility, strength of skeleton, and heart size. Fatty deposits are cleared from blood vessels, and ventilation of lungs and gas exchange become more efficient
what is atrophy? degeneration and loss of muscle mass, caused by complete immobilization of muscle resulting from enforced bed rest or loss of neural stimulation, can atrophy to 1/4 the initial size, muscle replaced by fibrous connective tissue: muscle rehabilitation impo
what are myoblasts? immature muscle cell
what is duchenne's muscular dystrophy? most common and most serious form of atrophy, x-linked disorder (females are carriers) males are diagnosed between ages 2 and 10, no cure, death due to respiratory failure, occurs during early adulthood
what are the 4 stages of muscle contraction and relaxation? 2 1) Cross bridge formation: myosin head binds to myosin-binding sites of actin. 2) Power stroke: myosin head pulls on thin filament, sliding towards center of sarcomere 3) Cross bridge detachment: ATP binds to myosin head and thin & thick filaments detach. 4) "Cocking" of myosin head: ATP hydrolysis gives energy to return myosin to original position
what is rigor mortis? why does it occur? why does it dissipates? 2 the stiffening of muscles and joints. Muscles stiffen 3-4 hours after death, peak rigidity occurs at 12 hours and gradually dissipates over the next 48-60 hours, rigor is caused bc Ca++ enters the dead muscle cells causing myosin cross bridges to form, since no ATP is produced, cross bridges are not broken, and the muscles remained contracted, rigor disappears bc of the breakdown of actin and myosin
Created by: mchuan



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