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Child Development

Parenthood and to add to their relationship. Identitiy vs. role confusion- adolesence
Not to save a marriage or relationship intimacy vs. isolation- young adulthood
Not to resolve issuses generatvity vs. self-absorption- adulthood
In choosing a place to leave your child temporarily many factors need to be considered. If a caregiver or childcare facility will not allow you to leave your child there do not place your child in that situation. ego integrity despair- aging
Erikson's 8 stages of development--continues from infancy until old age Jean piosets studied how children learn- cognative or intelluctual
Trust vs. mistrust- trust is a key part of social development. Mistrust is most serious for it includes a lack of trust and feelings. Sensopi motor stage- birth to 2 yrs: Learning comes from using their senses.
Initiative vs. guilt- Initiative is the ability to think or act without being urged, children enter Erikson's fourth stage Preoptional stage- 2-7 yrs:the child begins to form concepts and use symbols, imitate others, less ego but still believes that other people think the same as he/she does.
concrete operational- 11 yrs: Learn to reason and use logic, can imagine what another person might be thinking or feeling, thinking, draw conclusions, look to 11-15 yrs. formal operational- 11 yrs:abstract thinking, draw conclusions, look to future and recall the past.
full-term pregnancy is about 40 weeks egg is fertilized by perm in the womb
fraternal twins come fromtwo seperate eggs and two seperate sperm identical twins come from one egg and one sperm fertilized egg split into two seperate beings
Fertilized egg divides into a hollow ball of cells called a morula zygote implants in the lining of the uterus and gros into an endometrium
embryo develops all body parts and is then called a blastocyst baby grows inside of the fetus
baby is attached to the uterus by the placenta by the placenta which provides oxygen and nutrients from the mother's bloodstream baby is connected to the placenta by the umbilical cord
folate is an important nutrient that helps to prevent neural tube defects such as spina bifida and anencephaly baby is enclosed in the amniotic sac which is filled with amniotic fluid which protects baby form bumps jolts and keeps it at a constant temperature
pregnancy-induced hypertension, toxemia and preclamosia are all names for a potentially dangerous condition during pregnancy that involves high blood pressure along with possible sweling or edema, blurred vision, painful headaches and malfunctioning amniocentesis when fluid is taken from the amniotic sac through a needle and the cells are tested to determine the presence of genetic birth defects, development of the lungs, etc.
down syndrome- is an example of a birth defect that is caused by an extra chromosome children inherit many physical characteristics such as height, hair color, eye color, body build, facial characteristics, etc.
a spontaneous abortion- is another name for miscarriage during the first month the baby is at the greatest risk of birth defects from the drugs and alcohol because that is when the body and all of its parts are forming.
teenage mothers have a higher risk of delivering a low-birth-weight baby under 5 1/2 lbs 3 stages- effacement and dilation of the cervix to 10 centimeters delivery of the baby delivery of the afterbirth
the epidural is the most common anesthesia for ppreventing pqain during labor and childbirth the APGAR test is a quick visual evalation of newborn's health and condition immediately following brith
neonate is a term that means "newborn" newborns come with rooting
sucking reflex- when the cheek is touched, baby touched, baby turns face in that direction searching for food palmar- baby fingers wrap around object when palm is touched
babinuki- toes fan out when bottom of foot is stroked moro or startle- baby throws head back, arms and legs stiffen out and baby gasps when startle by loud sound, bright light or sudden movement
plantar- toes curl around the object when touched stepping or walking- when the infant's soles of their feet touch a solid surace, they alternately left their feet in a walking motion
the spacesz between these plates are called fontanels gradually grow together after birth and the fontanels dissapear newborns should be fed when they are hungry- not on schedule newborns double their birth weight in the first year of life. they add 1/2 to their birht length during the first year.
newborns learn by using thier senses: sight, smell, tatse, touch, sound newborns are motivated to learn through negative rienforcement
talk and responding to newborn sounds encourages speech development bonding is an emotional connection made between the infant and the person who immunizations are important to protect the child from many communicable diseases
an infant or small child's brain is veery fragile and can be damaged by shaking, tossing, hitting or roughly josting the child. this syndrome is known as shaken body syndrome infants should alwys be placed on thier back when sleeping to help prevent SIDS
stranger anxiety- is when a child starts to become aware of strangers and appears to be afraid of them seperation anxiety is when a child becomes anxious when they are seperates from the parent or other familiar person
toddlers are age 1 or walking to approximately age 3 toddlers are very egocentirc this means that they see the world only in terms of themselves and they are very self-centered and selfish by nature
it is difficult to imposiible for toddlers to share toddlers are learning to control their world and are very slow
toddlers love to explore therefore it is important to baby proof your house for safety toddlers are still growing quickly but not as quickly as when they were infants
parents and other should model appropriate and behavior for toddlers because they learn by imitation toys for toddlers shouldnt have small parts because they can choke on them
preschoolers are children ages 3 to 5 yrs preschoolers have better control of their emtions than toddlers and are much easier to get along with becuase of their behaviora and control their emotions
preschoolers love to participant in activites and like doing hands on activities preschoolers are very energetic and outgoing
preschoolers are grown but not as rapidly as whe they were infants or toddlers imaginary friend are very common with preschoolers and are very normal. This is an indication of a very good imagination
fantasy and reality may occasionally become mixed up moral development- is developing a sense of "right" and "wrong"
social development- is learning to communication work with and get along with others cognative development- is learning or intellectual development
physical development- is the body growing and learning new physical emotional development- is learning to experience and express emotions.
classifying and calssification is learning how to sort things out into groups conservation is when a child recognizes that mass remains the same even though it changes shape.
transformation is recognizing that one object may transform into another form over time toilet training should happen when the child is physically and emotionally ready to be trained, toilet training should be a pleasant experience, not a frustrating one
solitary play: the child plays alone as i infants parallel play: the child enjoys playing with and interacting with other children. ex:children playing a game together
consistency is one of the most important aspects of discipline. logical consequences are consquences that are created by the parent or caregiver that logically relate to the misbehavior
parents and caregivers should always use non-violence, non-aggressive forms of discipline even if the child is being violent or aggressive. positive reinforcement is noticing when a child is doing good things and responding to them with praise or encourgement.
Created by: ah166385