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RS Anatomy

Respiratory System Anatomy-Nasal Cavity

What are the functions of the nasal cavity? 1) Gas Exchange 2) Regulate blood pH 3) Filtration of inspired air 4) Receptors for smell 5) Production of vocal sounds (phonation) 6) Excretes small amounts of water and heat
The nose is anatomically divided into 2 parts. What are they? 1) External nose 2) Nasal Cavity
What parts make up the cartilaginous framework of the external nose? 1) Septal cartilage 2) Lateral Nasal cartilage 3) Alar cartilage (All are hyaline cartilage)
The cartilagenous parts of the anterior nose are composed of: 1) Upper Lateral nasal cartilage 2) Lower lateral nasal cartilage 3) Area on the lateral sides of nares (ala of the nose) 4) 2 muscles (a dilator and a constrictor)
The bony framework of the external bone consists of: 1) The nasal bones 2) Frontal processes of the maxilla bone 3) Nasal part/ Maxillary process of the frontal bone
What artery is the maxillary artery derived from? The external carotid artery
What artery is the opthalmic artery derived from? The internal carotid artery
The blood supply of the upper hjaw and nose is mainly derived from? The maxillary and opthalmic artery
The opthalmic artery gives 2 branches: 1) Anterior ethmoidal artery 2) Posterior ethmoidal artery
The facial artery supplies: Both internally and externally Ala and lower part of the nasal septum
The intratrochlear nerve is derived from which nerve? The nasociliary nerve
Which nerves supply the external part of the nose? 1) Infratrochlear nerve 2) External nasal nerve 3) Opthalmic nerve 4) Infraorbital branch of maxillary nerve
The infraorbital branch of the maxillary nerve : passes in the infraorbital foramen and supplies the nose
Name the structures of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity 1) Starts with the vestibule and anterior nares 2) Atrium (antrum) 3) 3 conchae (with 3 meatuses below them and a sphenoethmoidal recess)
The sphenoid air sinus opens into the: Sphenoethmoidal recess
The roof of the nasal cavity is formed by: 1) Cribriform plate of ethmoid 2) Nasal bone anteriorly 3) Sphenoid bone posteriorly
The septum of the nose is made up of: 1) Septal cartilage 2) Vertical plate of ethmoid 3) The Vomer
What are the functions of the nasal cavity? 1) Respiratory function 2) Olfactory (smelling) 3) Resonance of voice) 4) Drains lacrimal fluid 5) Protective -filtration, sneezing, enzymes, moisture of air ( a protection mechanism to brain cells)
What are the nares? The anterior openings of the nasal cavities
How are the nares held open? By the surrounding alar cartilages and septal cartilage
Nares are continuosly: open
How are the nares widened further? By the action of the related muscles of facial expression
What are the Chonae? Openings between the nasal cavities and the nasopharynx
Describe the general structure of the Chonae? Rigid openings completely surrounded by bone
What are the boundaries of the nasal cavity? 1) Floor 2) Roof 3) Lateral wall 4) Septal (or medial) wall
What is the floor composed of? The upper surface of the hard palate
What 2 structures make up the upper surface of the hard palate? 1) Palatine process of the maxilla 2) Horizontal plate of the palatine bone
What are the two main parts of the roof of the nasal cavity? 1) Sloping anterior part 2) Horizontal middle part 3) Sloping posterior part
The Sloping anterior part of the roof of the nasal cavity is made up of: The nasal spine of the frontal and nasal bones
The Horizontal middle part of the roof of the nasal cavity is made up of: The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
The sloping posterior part of the roof of the nasal cavity is made up of: 1) Anterior surface of the sphenoid bone 2) Ala of the vomer 3) Vaginal process of the palatine bone
The medial wall of the nasal cavity is made up of: 1) Septal nasal cartilage, anteriorly 2) Vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, posteriorly
The lateral wall of the bone is made up of Bone, Cartilage, and soft tissues
The bony support of the lateral wall is made up of: 1) Ethmoidal labyrinth and uncinate process 2) Perpendicular plate of the palatine bone 3) Medial plate of the pterygoid process 4) Medial surfaces of the lacrimal bones and maxilla 5) Inferior conchae
What are the 3 main parts of the lateral wall? 1) Vestibule 2) Antrum 3) 3 conchae (with their meatuses and a recess)
What is the vestibule? The area of the nasal cavity just inside the nostril
What is the importance of the vestibule? It's covered with skin and contains thick hairs called Vibrissae
All of the nasal cavity is lined with respiratory mucous membrane except: 1) The vestibule is lined with modified skin and coarse hairs 2) The superior concha above is lined with OLFACTORY mucous membrane and contains nerve endings
What is the function of the mucous membrane? There's a large plexus of veins in the submucous connective tissue Warm venous blood heats up the inspired air as it enters Mucous traps the foreign particles from the inspired air
What are the three conchae of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity? Superior, middle, and inferior
What are the three meatuses and the recess in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity? Superior, middle, and inferior meatuses and a sphenoethmoidal recess
Describe the placement of the choncae? They all extend medially across the nasal cavity and seperate into the four air channels mentioned above The anterior end of each concha curves inferiorly to form a lip that overlies the end of the related meatus
The lateral wall of the middle meatus elevates to form: The dome-shaped bulla ethmoidalis (Ethmoidal bulla)
The ethmoidal bulla is formed by the: Underlying middle ethmoidal cells, which expand the medial wall of the ethmoidal labyrinth
Inferior to the ethmoidal bulla is a curved gutter called: the hiatus semilunaris
How is the hiatus semilunaris formed? By the mucosa covering the lateral wall Defect in the bony wall between the ethmoidal bulla above and the uncinate process below
Anterior end of the hiatus semilnaris forms the: Ethmoidal infundibulum
The ethmoidal infundibulum curves upwards and continues as: The frontonasal duct through the anterior part of the ethmoidal labyrinth to open into the frontal sinus
What is the site of drainage of the maxillary sinus? Middle meatus Through the hiatus semilunaris
What is the site of drainage of the frontal sinuses? Middle meatus Through the infundibulum and frontonasal duct
What is the site of drainage of the sphenoidal sinuses? Sphenoethmoidal recess
What are the groups of the ethmoidal sinuses? 1) Anterior 2) Middle 3) Posterior 4) Nasolacrimal duct
Where does the anterior group of the ethmoidal sinuses drain? Infundibulum into the middle meatus
Where does the middle group of the ethmoidal sinuses drain? Middle meatus On or above the bulla ethmoidalis
Where does the posterior group of the ethmoidal sinuses drain? Superior meatus
Where does the nasolacrimal ducts open into? The lateral wall of the interior nasal meatus
What are the major blood vessels supplying the nasal cavity? 1) Sphenopalatine artery 2) Posterior lateral nasal branches 3) Posterior septal branches 4) Greater palatine artery 5) Anterior and posterior Ethmoidal arteries 6) Superior labial and lateral nasal arteries
Generally what are the two major arteries supplying the nasal cavity? The external carotid artery, by maxillary and facial arteries The internal carotid artery, by the opthalmic artery which gives anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries
What blood vessel does the facial artery give off? The Superior labial artery
What parts of the nasal cavity does the superior labial artery supply? The septal and lateral walls
What are the branches of the maxillary artery supplying the nasal cavity? 1) Sphenopalatine artery (divides to short and long) 2) The Palatine artery (divides to greater and lesser)
Which branch of the sphenopalatine artery is more significant? The long sphenopalatine It supplies the lateral and septal walls and has a role in epitaxis
What is epitaxis? Nose bleeding
What areas do the branches of the palatine artery supply? 1) Greater palatine supplies the hard palate and passes through the incisive foramen and supplies the nose 2) The lesser palatine supplies the soft palate
The lateral wall can be divided into 4 quadrants: 1) Upper anterior 2) Upper posterior 3) Lower anterior 4) Lower posterior
Each of these quadrants gets its blood supply from? The branches we mentioned earlier
The short sphenopalatine artery supplies: A large part of the lateral wall-The posterior superior quadrant (Upper posterior)
The septum of the nasal cavities is supplied by: 1) The septal branches of anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries 2) Septal branch of sphenopalatine artery (mostly long) 3) Anteriorly, by the septal branch of the facial/ superior label artery
The posterior and anterior lower quadrants are supplied by: The greater palatine
The anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries of the opthalmic mainly supply: The upper part of the lateral wall (mostly the anterior ethmoidal) Both give septal branches
What does the anterior ethmoidal terminate into? External nasal artery
What does the superior labial artery supply? 1) The ala of the nose, externally 2) The septum, internally
So, which two arteries are responsible for epitaxis? 1) The superior labial - Facial 2) The long sphenopalatine - Maxillary
What is the area between the upper two thirds of the septum and the lower third, where epitaxis occurs? Kiesselbach's area
Is the epitaxis is severe, how do we treat it? 1) Cauterization 2) With Silver nitrate
How are the veins of the nasal cavity named? According to the arteries they run opossite to
The anterior part of the nasal cavity drains into: The facial vein
The posterior part of the nasal cavity drains into: The pterygoid plexus which forms the beginning of the maxillary vein
The upper part drains into: The opthalmic veins which can reach the cavernous sinus
The lymphatic drainage: Tip of the nose and midline --> the submental lymph nodes The remaining parts --> drain in the submandibular lymph nodes, then they drain in the deep cervical lymph nodes
Which vessel is the largest supplying the nasal cavity? Sphenopalatine artery
The terminal branch of the maxillary artery in the pterygopalatine fossa is? Sphenopalatine artery
How does the sphenopalatine artery enter the nasal cavity? It enters the nasal cavity by passing medially through the sphenopalatine foramen
How does the long sphenopalatine artery run through the nasal cavity? It passes over the roof of the cavity and onto the nasal septum
The anterior ethmoidal artery descends through? A slit like foramen lateral to the crista galli
The posterior ethmoidal artery descends into the nasal cavity though: The cribriform plate
Where does the olfactory nose arise from in the nose? The bipolar cells at the olfactory region of the nose
How many olfactory filaments does the bipolar cell give off? 12-20
How do these filaments enter the anterior cranial fossa to form the olfactory lobe and tract that ends in the olfactory center? They penetrate the cribriform plate of ethmoid
Which nerve and nerve branches are responsible for general sensation in the nasal cavity? The trigeminal nerve via the opthalmic and maxillary branches
The parasympathetic innervation of the nasal cavity is supplied by the: Facial nerve
The posterior ethmoidal nerve supplies: The posterior ethmoidal air sinus and does not innervate the nose
The anterior ethmoidal nerve supplies: The upper anterior area and terminates as the external nasal nerve to supply the skin of the nose
The postero superior (Upper posterior) quadrant is supplied by the: Posterior Superior lateral nasal nerves (from the short sphenopalatine)
The postero inferior (Lower posterior) quadrant is supplied by: The posterior inferior nasal nerve branches from the greater palatine nerve
The maxillary air sinus and the anterior part of the nose: The infraorbital nerve which is a branch of the maxillary nerve
The long sphenopalatine forms the: Nasopalatine nerve which mainly supplies the septum
The septum is mainly innervated by: The nasopalatine and the septal branch of anterior ethmoidal nerve
The lateral wall is innervated by: 1) Anterior ethmoidal 2) Long and short sphenopalatines 3) Great palatine 4) Infraorbital branch of the maxillary nerve (IMP)
The lateral wall and upper teeth are also innervated by: 1) Middle and superior alveolar nerves 2) Nasal branch of alveolar nerve Both from the maxillary nerve
Created by: Ulaisl