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Wiz - Exam Study Pre

Wiz - A&P Exam Study Prep

Myopia near-sightedness
Olfaction sense of smell
Cones responsible for color vision
Rods responsible for black/white vision
Hyperopia far-sightedness
Innate Immunity genetically determined immunity
Active Immunity generated from illness exposure
Hypoxia low supply of 02(oxygen) to tissues
Visceral Pleura serous membrane lining organs(lungs) of thorax
Anoxia no supply of/ lack of 02(oxygen) to tissues
Aldosterone stimulates/increases reabsorbtion of sodium
Sodium (Na) most abundant extracellular cation
Potassium (K) most abundant intracellular cation
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) inhibits/slows excretion of fluid (water retention in kidneys)
Nephrons basic functional unit of kidneys
Urination micturition
Juxtaglomerular apparatus associated with renin
Loop of Henle regulation of sodium(Na) & H20 in the urine
Distal Convoluted Tube active site for the secretion of ions & drugs
Proximal Convoluted Tube reabsorbtion of nutrients occurs here
Collecting Ducts respond to the hormone Aldosterone
Renal Cortex urine production begins here
Renal Medulla contains renal pyramids
Renal Pelvis continuous with the ureter
Pyelonephritis inflammation of kidney tissue
Aldosterone secreted by adrenal cortex
Graft-versus-Host disease condition where donor T cells attack recipient tissue
Mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus
Lymphadenopathy enlargement of lymph nodes
Lymphoma cancer with abnormal lymphocytes
Apoptosis genetically programmed cell death
Passive Immunity immunity through breast milk
Active Immunity immunity through vaccinations
NK cells lymphocyte that attacks cancer cells
B cells lymphocyte that stimulates antibody release
Spleen largest mass of lymphoidal tissue
Dyspnea difficult breathing
Apnea cessation of breathing
Epistaxis nose bleed
Tidal Volume (Vt) normal inhalation & exhalation
Respiratory Distress Syndrome inadequate inhalation & exhalation
Pleurisy inflammation of the pleaura
Atelectasis collapsed lung
Thyroid cartilage Adam's apple
Fi02 inspired 02 concentration
What is the avg. total lung capacity? 4-6 lpm
What is the avg. tidal volume? 500mL
Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) also called Korsakoff's psychosis (KP), is a continuation of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) & includes retrograde amnesia & impaired ability to learn
Polyuria excessive urine production
Type I Diabetes Mellitus Insulin-dependent diabetes, commonly called juvenile-onset diabetes; requires admin. of insulin; less common than Type II, but more serious; accounts for most diabetes-related deaths; may result in medical emergency of diabetic ketoacidosis
Type I Diabetes Mellitus: Signs & Symptoms (S&S) s&s(signs & symptoms) of constant thirst, excessive urination, ravenous appetite, weakness, & weight loss
Type II Diabetes Mellitus non insulin-dependent diabetes, a.k.a. adult-onset diabetes; moderate decline in body's insulin production accompanied by markedly deficient response to insulin present in body; most common type of diabetes mellitus and less serious than Type I
Type II Diabetes Mellitus: S & S s&s of obesity, increased weight/size of fat cells causes deficiency in # of insulin receptors per cell, making fat less responsive to insulin
Digestion the chemical breakdown of ingested materials into simple molecules that can be absorbed by the cells of the digestive tract
Fracture a break or crack in bone
Greenstick fracture most common fracture in children, due to large amt. of cartilage in their bones; one side of bone is broken & the other side is bent
Torus fracture occurs in children, but not most common; localized buckling or swelling(torus) of the cortex, with little little or no displacement of the bone itself
Transverse fracture a fracture line perpendicular to the long axis of the bone
Oblique fracture the break extends obliquely to the long axis of the bone
Spiral fracture a.k.a. torsion fracture, occurs when a twisting force is applied to a long bone
Comminuted fracture a bone at the fracture site has multiple bone fragments
Segmental fracture an injury where there are multiple fracture sites along the axis of the bone, leaving a free-floating segment of bone between the 2 fracture sites; often mistakenly called comminuted fractures
Open fracture a.k.a. compound fracture; skin is broken & a communication exists between the fracture site & the environment
Closed fracture a.k.a. simple fractures; skin is not broken & there is no communication between the fracture & the environment
What is the most common type of hip fracture? subcapital fracture(intracapsular hip fx) & intertrochanteric fracture(extracapsular hip fracture)
What is the most common forearm fracture? Colle's fracture; the shape of the wrist after the injury often resembles a dinner fork
How are facial fractures categorized? LeFort I, LeFort II, LeFort III, & LeFort IV
LeFort I fracture fx to the maxilla at level of nares; only hard plate & upper teeth move with gentle palpation & mobilization
LeFort II fracture triangular fracture line extends across ridge of cheeks & into orbits; mobilization of fractured segment will move nose, but not eyes
LeFort III fracture a.k.a. cranial-facial disjunction; facial skeleton is separated from skull; entire face, including both orbits, shifts with palpation & gentle mobilization
LeFort IV fracture similar to LeFort III fx, but fx line extends upward into frontal bones
3 Phases of fracture healing 1) inflammatory 2) reparative 3) remodeling
Addison's disease disorder of the adrenal gland; disease caused by hyposecretion of corticosteroids, esp. glucocorticoids; pigment changes result from stim. of melanocytes by ACTH, structurally similar to MSH; progress. weakness, fatigue, decreased appetite, & weight loss
Addison's disease (cont.) due to cortical distruction; due to autoimmune disease; similar to Grave's disease, in that it may be hereditary
Grave's disease disorder of the thyroid gland; excess circulation of thyroid hormones; 6x more common in women than men with & onset typically in young adulthood(20s & 30s);
Grave's disease : S&S agitation, emotional lability, insomnia, poor heat tolerance, weight loss despite increased appetite, weakness, dyspnea, & tachycardia or new-onset a-fib in absence of a cardiac history
Hepatitis A fecal/oral
Hepatitis B vaccine available
Hepatitis C non curable
Hepatitis D, E, F, G result from Hep C and are non curable; Hep E is similar to Hep A
S&S of Infectious Hepatitis PTs develop low-grade fever, loss of appetite, & malaise; skin, sclera, & mucous membranes may become jaundiced due to accumulation of bilirubin in body; severe cases - signif. n/v can lead to dehydration as evidenced by tachy, dry mucous membranes, etc
What cells in the pancreas secrete insulin and glucagon? pancreatic islets
What organ is the male's primary sex organ? testes
Name the only cell in the body that contains a tail. flagellum; moves sperm cell from place to place
What is Oogenesis? ovum(egg) production in females; a process which begins before birth, accelerates at puberty, & ends at menopause
Endometriosis condition in which endometrial tissue is found outside the uterus, most commonly found in the abdomen & pelvis; the tissue responds to hormonal changes assoc. with menstrual cycle & bleeds cyclically, causing inflammation, scarring of adjacent tissues
S&S of Endomertriosis usually seen in women ages 30-40; most common symptom-dull, cramping pelvic pain usually related to menstruation; dyspareunia & abnorm. uterine bleeding; painful bowel mvmts. if endometrial tissue has invaded GI tract
Hypothalmus where the sex drive lives
Parturition during labor, the forcible expulsion of the fetus from the uterus
3 Stages of Labor 1) dialtion stage, 2) expulsion stage, 3) placental stage
1st Stage of Labor, during Labor & Delivery 1) dilation: onset of labor, cervix dilates & fetus begins to slide down cervical canal; typically 8+ hrs; at start of this stage, contractions q 10-30 min and feq. increases steadily; late in stage - amnion ruptures "water break"
2nd Stage of Labor, during Labor & Delivery 2) expulsion: begins @ cervix, which is pushed open by approaching fetus, dilates completely; cont. 'till fetus emerges from vagina (usually takes -2 hrs; arrival of newborn into outside world is delivery a.k.a. "birth"
3rd Stage of Labor, during Labor & Delivery 3) placental stage: usually within 1 hr. after delivery - ejection of the placenta a.k.a. "afterbirth"
Dizygotic "fraternal" twins; makes up about 70% of twins; when 2 eggs are fertilized @ same time & form 2 separate zygotes; can be same or diff. sexes
Spermatogenesis a.k.a. sperm production; occurs within seminiferous tubules, each diploid primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis & produces 4 haploid spermatids, each spermatid then develops into a spermatozoon
Diploid having a complete somatic complement of chromosomes (23 pairs in human cells); a cell containing both members of each chromosome pair - each cell & its daughter cell
Haploid Possessing 1/2 the norm. # of chromosomes; a characteristic of gametes
Capacitation (of spermatozoa) process of spermatozoa becoming motile(actively swimming) & fully functional; occurs after 1) mix with secretions of seminal vesicles & 2) are exposed to cond. inside the female reproductive tract
Corpora Cavernosa erectile tissue of the male penis
Corpus Spongiosum slender, surrounding of the urethra & extends to tip of penis where is forms the glans
Ectopic Pregnancy abnorm. implantation of fertilized egg outside of uterus; accounts for approx. 10% of maternal mortality
Calcitriol works together with parathyroid hormone (PTH) to elevate calcium levels in body fluids
Calcitonin depresses calcium levels in body fluids
Calcium (Ca) most abundant mineral in the body
Nutrition absorption of nutrients from food
Deamination preparation of an amino acid for breakdown in the TCA cycle; the removal of an amino group in a reaction that generates an ammonia molecule (NH3)
Transamination attaches the amino group of an amino acid to another carbon chain, creating a "new" amino acid; enable a cell to synthesize many amino acids needed for protein synthesis
Cytoplasm fluid component of cell
Golgi apparatus packaging plant of cell
Lysosome digests pathogens
ATP (amino triphosphate) needed for active transport to occur
Endoplasmic Reticulum network of channels in cell
Ribosomes synthesize proteins
Nucleus controls metabolism
Centrioles play a critical role in cell division
Chromatin contains DNA
Cell membrane are selectively permeable
Skeletal muscle contraction: Pre Step 1 Pre Step 1) resting sacromere
Skeletal Muscle contraction: Step 1 Step 1) active site exposure; the active site is exposed following the binding of calcium (Ca) ions to troponin
Skeletal Muscle contraction: Step 2 Step 2) cross-bridge formation; the myosin cross-bridge forms & attaches to the exposed active site on the thin filament
Skeletal Muscle contraction: Step 3 Step 3) pivoting of myosin head; the attached myosin head pivots toward the center of the sarcomere, & ADP & a phosphate group are released
Skeletal Muscle contraction: Step 4 Step 4) cross-bridge detachment; the cross bridge detach when the myosin head binds another ATP molecule
Skeletal Muscle contraction: Step 5 Step 5) myosin reactivation; the detached myosin head is reactivated as it splits the ATP & captures the released energy
Created by: Wisniewski