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Arthrology and Neuro

Stack #206652

Functions of joints give skeleton mobility and hold skeleton together
Three classifications of joints fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial
Synarthroses joint immovable
Amphiarthroses joint slightly moveable
diarthroses joint freely moving
Fibrous Structual Joints bones joined by fibrous tissue, no joint cavity, most are immoveable
Three types of fibrous structual joints sutures, syndemoses and gemphoses
Sutures 6 bones of the skull, bind bones tightly together but allows for growth in youth
Syndesmoses connected by fibrous tissues, movement varies from immovable to slight variable,
Cartilaginous joints articulating bones are united by cartilage, lack of joint cavity
2 types of cartilaginous joints synchondrosis and symphyses
Synchondrosis bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites bone,
Symphyses hyaline cartilage covers the articular surface of the bone and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage, designed for strength and flexibility
Synovial Joints articulating bones are seperated by a fluid containing joint cavity, freely moving diarthroses
Synovial joints have articular cartilage,joint cavity, articular capsule, synovial fluid and reinforcing ligaments
Bursae flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid
Tendon sheath elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon
Nonaxial ROM slipping movements only
Uniaxial movement in one plane
Biaxial movement in two planes
multiaxial movement in or around all three planes
Gliding Movements one flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface ex intercarpal or intertarsal bones
Hinge (Ginglymus) one surface is concave, the other convex, move in one plane, elbow, knee or ankle
Ball and Socket one surface rounded convex fitting into a cup like cavity, movement in all planes, shoulder and hip joint
Condyloid one surface is oval convex, the other concave, movement in two planes without rotation, carpals
Saddle (sellar) each surface concave in a direction, convex in the other thumb
Irregular joint irregular shaped surface, carpal
pivot joint one surface conical, other depressed, movement around a long axis, proximal radioulnarjoint and atlas and ulna
Muscles smooth, skeletal and cardiac
skeletal muscles has ability to stretch and shorten, connect tendons to bone, striated
Fusiform muscles formed by long parallel fibers, typically involved in movement over a large ROM
Pennate muscles consists of short diagonal fibers, involved in movements that require great strength over a limited ROM
Endomysium around single muscle fiber
Perimysium around a fasicicle (bundle) of fibers
Epimysium covers the entire skeletal muscle
fascia on the outside of the epimysium
sites of muscle attachments bones, cartilages and connective tissue coverings
sarcolemma specialized plasma membrane
sarcroplasmic reticulum specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum
myofibril bundles of myofilaments, alligned to give distinct bonds..
1 band light band
A band dark band
sarcomere contractile unit of a muscle fiber composed of protein myosin has enzyme ATPase
motor unit one neuron muscle cells stimulated by that neuron
neuromuscular junction association site of nerve and muscle
synaptic cleft gap between nerve and muscle
neurotransmitter chemical released by nerve upon arrival or nerve impulse
Two divisions of the nervous system central nerves and peripheral nerves
Central nerves the brain and spinal cord, the center of intergration
Peripheral nerves the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord consists of 31 spinal nerves
The neuron function and structural unit of the nervous system, specialized to conduct info one part of the body to another
true ankle joint tibia fibula and talus
talocrural joint synovial hinge joint with 2 motions dorsiflexion and plantar flexion
Anterior Talofibular Ligament limits anterior translation of talus or tibia, resists inversion when foot is in plantar flexion
calcaneofibular ligament resists inversion
posterior talofibular limits posterior translation of talus and tibia
deltoid ligament works to prevent eversion of ankle
syndesmosis joint helps maintain joint stability injury may widen the ankle mortise
anterior compartment tibialis, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, peroneus tertius, deep peroneal nerve, anterior tibial artery
lateral compartment peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, superficial peroneal nerve, peroneal artery
posterior compartment superficial compartment gastrochnemius, soleus, plantaris and tibial nerve
deep posterior compartment tabialis posterior flexor digitorum longus flexor hallucis longus
Joints are... The weakest part of the skeletion. is the articulation site where two or more bones meet
Created by: Calligurl08