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Integument system

Medical Health Professionals Program

QuestionAnswer
What is the larges organ in both SA and weight? The skin
The adult skin covers_m2 2
Epidermis the outer thinner portion of the skin
What is the dermis Inner, thicker, CT part of the skin where the epidermis is attached to
What's the hypodermis? Beneath the dermis is the subcutaneous layer called the hypodermis that attaches the skin to underlying stucture
what are the 6 functions of the skin -Regulation of body temp -protection -sensation -excretion -immunity -synthesis of vitamin D
Regulation of body temp the evaporation of sweat from the skin surface helps to lower body temperature. Changes in blood flow to skin also help regulate temp.
protection from 4 pts the skin covers the body and provides a physical barrier that protects underlying tissues fr. physical abrasion, bacterial invasion,dehydration, and UV radiation. Hair and nails have protective functions as well.
sensation skin contains abundant nerve endings and receptors that detect stimuli related to temp, touch, pressure and pain.
immunity certain cells of the epidermis is important components of the immune system
synthesis of vitamin D exposure to skin to UV rays helps with the production of Vitamin D, a substance that aids in the absorption of calcium and phosphorous from the digestive system into the blood.
What is the epidermis composed of? 1 keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
what is the most common cell in the epidermis? keritinocyte
what do keritinocytes undergo? Explain this process. Keritinization. Cells form at the bottom layers and slowly are pushed up towards the surface. As they move up they accumulate keratin. At the same time, the cytoplasm, nucleus, and other organelles disappear and the cells die.
What is Keratin a protein that helps protect skin and underlying tissues
what happens to the dead cells on the surface of the skin? the cells slough off and are replaced by underlying cells.
How long does the process of keritinization last for? 2-4 weeks
Melanocyte are found in... -are the second type of cell found in the epidermis.(can also be found in dermis)
melanocytes produce... what does it do melanin: one of the pigments responsible for skin color and absorbing UV radiation
3rd type of cell found in the epidermis: langehan cell
Function of the langehan cell? what can damage it? in immune response and can easily be damaged by UV radiation
Merkel Cell -location in the -function -found in epidermis -located in the deepest layer of the epidermis of hairless skin -the sensation of touch
where is the exposure to friction greatest? palms and soles of feet
what happens to the epidermis on your palms and soles of feet it is thicker: 1-2mm and 5 layers are recognizeable
The dermis is composed of: -- containing 2 providing skin its 3 CT containing collagen and elastic fibres providing skin its strength, extensibility, and elasticity
cells in the dermis include 3 fibroblasts(lay down collagen and elastic fibres) macrophages (immune system cells) adipocytes(fat cells)
the upper region of the dermis consists of 1 areolar CT
The upper region of the dermis SA is greatly increased by finger like projections called dermal papillae
Dermal papillae cause ridges in the epidermis and which produce finger prints and help us grip objects
what are meissner's corpuscles dermal papillae or nerve receptors sensitive to light touch
the lower region of the dermis consists of 7 dense, irregular CT, adipose tissue, hair follicles, nerves, oil glands, and sweat glands
the subcutaneous layer consists of 2 nerve endings sensitive to pressure called pacian corpuscles and blood vessels
cold and warm receptors are found in the middle and upper dermis
skin colour is due to a combo of... 3 melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin
The amount of melanin in the skin varies the skin colour from pale yellow to black
Albinism the inability to produce melanin
freckles are patches of melanin in the skin
Exposure to UV radiation increases the amount and darkness of the melanin
over exposure to __ __ can lead to __ __ UV Radiation, Skin Cancer
Erythema is... what is it caused by? the redness of the skin -engorgement of capilaries in the dermis with blood -exersize, injury, infection, inflamation, even embarrassment
Excretion small amounts of water, salts, and organic compounds are excreted by sweat glands
Created by: Ezmeralda