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Nervous System

Nervous System Organization, Glial cells, Structure of a Neuron

TermDefinition
Central Nervous System Includes the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System Includes spinal nerves to carry impulses to and from the spinal cord and cranial nerves to carry impulses to and from the brain.
Sensory (afferent) Division Includes somatic sensory fibers and visceral sensory fibers.
Motor (efferent) Division Carries impulses from the CNS to organs, muscles and glands.
Sense Organs Skin, skeletal muscles, joints, and organs.
Somatic Division Voluntarily controlled like skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Division Involuntarily controlled like the heart muscle.
Parasympathetic Division Referred to as the "Resting and Digesting" system.
Sympathetic Division Referred to as the "Fight or Flight" system
Astrocyte *Abundant, star shaped.
Microglial cell *Spider-like phagocyte.
Ependymal cells *Lines the cavity of the brain and spinal cord.
Oligodendrocytes *Produces fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheaths.
Satellite cells *Act as protective, cushioning cells.
Schwann cells *Form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers.
Nucleus Control center of the cell body of the neuron.
Mitochondrion The energy providing organelle.
Dendrite convey incoming messages toward the cell body.
Cell body Part of the neuron that contains organelles surrounded by cytoplasm.
Nissl substance Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Axon hillock Cone like region
Neurofibrils Sometimes called the "neuron husk".
Axon carry messages away from the cell body.
Collateral branch An occasional protrusion along an axon.
Node of Ranvier Gaps formed from the individual Schwann cells
Axon terminal End of the axon
Created by: emarroquin