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Nervous System

TermDefinition
central nervous system includes brain & spinal cord; functions include: command center, interpret incoming sensory info, & issue outgoing instructions
peripheral nervous system spinal nerves carry impulses to & from the spinal cord & cranial nerves to carry impulses to & from the brain; functions: serve as communication lines among sensory organs, the brain, & glands or muscles
sensory (afferent) division consists of nerve fibers that carry info to the cns from sensory receptors located around the body; includes somatic sensory fibers & visceral sensory fibers
motor (efferent) division carries impulses from the cns to organs, muscles and glands; impulses activate muscles & glands, that is they cause a response
sense organs skin, skeletal muscles, joints, & organs
somatic division voluntarily controlled like skeletal muscles
autonomic division involuntarily controlled like the heart muscle
parasympathetic division referred to as the "resting & digesting" system; allows the body to unwind & conserve energy
sympathetic division referred to as the "fight or flight" system; mobilizes the body during extreme situations such as excitement, exercise, & fear
astrocyte abundant star shaped; numerous projections have swollen ends that cling to neurons; form living barrier between capillaries & neurons; help determine capillary permeability; control chemical environment of brain; found in cns
microglial cell spider-like phagocyte; monitor health of neurons; dispose of debris like dead brain cells & bacteria; found in cns
ependymal cells lines cavity of brain & spinal cord; beating cilia helps circulate cerebrospinal fluid; found in cns
oligodendrocytes wrap their flat extensions tightly around nerve fibers; produces fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheaths; found in cns
satellite cells act as protective, cushioning cells; found in pns
schwann cells form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers; found in pns
nucleus control center of the cell body of the neuron
mitochondrion energy providing organelle in the cell body of the neuron
dendrite neuron processes that convey incoming messages toward cell body
cell body part of neuron that contains organelles surrounded by cytoplasm
nissl substance rough ER found in the cell body of a neuron
axon hillock cone like region of a neuron where axon arises
neurofibrils part of the schwann cell that is external to the myelin sheath; "neuron husk"
axon neuron presses that carry messages away from the cell body
collateral branch occasional protrusion along an axon
node of ranvier gaps formed from individual schwann cells forming myelin sheaths along the axon
axon terminal end of axon that forms many extensions that contain time vesicles that contain neurotransmitters
Created by: kajones97