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Gross Anatomy

Lower Limbs

QuestionAnswer
Origin of Gluteus Maximus Posterior Sacrum, Ilium (via ligamentous sheath) Superior gluteal line of ilium
Insertion of gluteus maximus Gluteal tuberosity of femur, Iliotibial tract (which continues to attach to lateral condyle of tibia
Action Of gluteus maximus Extension of femur at hip, lateral rotation of extended
Nerve for gluteus maximus Inferior gluteal nerve
gluteal muscle used for power, as in going upstairs, rising from sitting position, climbing or running gluteus maximus
Origin of Gluteus medius Iliac crest, Ilium between superior and middle gluteal lines
Insertion of gluteus medius Greater trochanter of femur
Action of gluteus medius abduction, medial rotaion of femur at hip, stabilizes pelvis and prevents it from tilting to the unsupported side.
paralysis of this muscle on one side results in the"gluteus limp" gluteus medius
Gluteus medius innervated by Superior gluteal nerve
Origin of Gluteus minimus Posterior ilium-between middle and inferior gluteal lines
Insertion of gluteus minimus Anterior surface of greater trochanter
Action of gluteus minimus abduction, medial rotation of femur at hip
Gluteus minimus innervated by Superior gluteal nerve
these two muscles work together in abduction and medial rotation of the femur at the hip gluteus medius and gluteus minimus
Iliopsoas muscle made up of two muscles Psoas major and iliacus
Origin of psoas major lumbar vertebrae- T12 thru L5
Insertion of psoas major Lesser trochanter of femur
Action of psoas major & iliacus (iliopsoas) Flexion of femur at hip joint, if thigh is fixed flexion of trunk at hip joint
Origin of iliacus Iliac fossa
Insertion of iliacus lesser trochanter of the femur
Psoas major innervated by L2, 3 directly
Iliacus innervated by femoral nerve (L2,L3, L4)
the strongest hip flexor iliopsoas
Psoas Minor not present in most people. it is a small muscle with a long tendon lying in front of psoas major, originating from T12, inserting on the pelvic brim and innervated by L1
Origin of Tensor Fasciae Latae Iliac crest (posterior to anterior superior iliac spine)
Insertion of tensor fasciae latae ITB (which continues to attach to lateral condyle of tibia)
Action of tensor fasciae latae Prevents collapse of knee during ambulation
Tensor fasciae latae assists in the following actions abduction, medial rotation, flexion of femur at hip and extension of knee
Tensor fasciae latae innervated by Superior gluteal nerve
Origin of Sartorius Anteror superior liliac spine
Insertion of Sartorius upper medial shaft of tibia
Action of Sartorius Assists flexion, abduction, lateral rotation of femur at hip, assists flexion, medial rotation of knee
Sartorius innervated by Femoral nerve (L2, 3,4)
Longest muscle in the body. Most superficial thigh muscle, forms lateral border of the femoral triangle, only assists in actions Sartorius
Quadriceps Femoris Group Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis
Origin of Rectus femoris Anterior inferior iliac spine, Ilium at upper rim of acetabulum
Insertion of Rectus Femoris patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Action of rectus Femoris Extension of knee, assists in flexion of femur at hip
Rectus femoris is innervated by Femoral Nerve (L2, 3, 4)
Only muscle in the quadriceps group that crosses both the hip and the knee joint. Combined actions are seen as the leg is brought forward in walking Rectus femoris
Origin of Vastus medialis Linea aspera on posterior femur
Origin of Vastus lateralis Linea aspera on posterior femur and the greater trochanter of femur
Origin of Vastus intermedius Anterior and lateral femoral shaft
Insertion of Vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius Patella, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Action of Vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and vastus intermedius Extension of knee
Innervation of Quadriceps group L2,3,4
Origin of pectineus Anterior pubis
Insertion of pectineus Between lesser trochanter and linea aspera of posterior femur
Action of pectineus Flexion of femur at hip and assists in adduction of femur at hip
Pectineus is innervated by Femoral Nerve (L2,3,4)
Only adductor supplied by the femoral nerve. Uppermost muscle of the medial thigh Pectineus
Forms the medial border of the femoral triangle Adductor Longus
Origin of adductor longus and adductor brevis Anterior pubis
Insertion of adductor longus and adductor brevis Linea aspera on posterior femur
Adductor longus and adductor brevis are innervated by Obturator (L3,4)
Muscle found deep to adductor longus Adductor brevis
The largest and deepest adductor muscle of the thigh Adductor Magnus
The femoral artery and femoral vein emerge from this to popliteal fossa behind the knee Adductor hiatus
Origin of the adductor magnus anterior (adductor) head Inferior ramus of pubis
Origin of the adductor magnus posterior (hamstring) head Ischial tuberosity and ramus of ischium
Insertion of the anterior (adductor) head of the adductor magnus adductor tubercle of the femur
Insertion of the posterior (hamstring) head of the adductor magnus Linea aspera of the femur
Action of Adductor Magnus Adduction of femur at hip
Action of Adductor Magnus Anterior Head Assists flexion and medial rotation of femur at hip
Action of Adductor Magnus posterior head assists extension and lateral rotation of femur at hip
Adductor magnus anterior head is innervated by Obturator Nerve (L2,3,4)
Adductor Magnus posterior head is innervated by Sciatic Nerve(L4,5,S1,2,3)
Origin of Gracilis Inferior ramus of anterior pubis
Insertion of gracilis medial proximal tibia
Action of gracilis adduction of femur at hip, assists in flexion and medial rotation of flexed knee
Gracilis is Innervated by Obturator Nerve (L2,3,4)
The most superficial and medial of the adductors gracilis
The femoral shaft forms a letter "V" with this muscle gracilis
Muscles of the hamstrings Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
Origin of biceps femoris long head ischial tuberosity
Origin of biceps femoris short head Linea aspera
Insertion of biceps femoris head of fibula (lateral aspect)
Action of biceps femoris long head extension of hip
Action of biceps femoris (both heads) flexion of knee, lateral rotation of flexed knee
Long head of biceps femoris is innervated by Sciatic Nerve -tibial division (S1,2,3)
Short head of biceps femoris is innervated by Sciatic Nerve-peroneal division (L5,S1,2)
Shortened hamstrings makes it hard to do this action Touching toes while keeping knees extended
Origin of Semitendinosus Ischial tuberosity
Insertion of semitendinosus anterior proximal tibial shaft
Insertion of semimembranosus posterior medial tibial condyle
Origin of semimembranosus ischial tuberosity
Action of semimembranosus and semitendinosus Extension of hip, flexion of the knee, medial rotation of the flexed knee
Semimembranosus and semitendinosus are innervated by Sciatic nerve (L5,S1,2)
Origin of Gastrocnemius Medial Head-medial epicondyle of femurLateral Head-lateral epicondyle of femur
Insertion of gastrocnemius calcaneus via tendo Achilles
Action of gastrocnemius Plantarflexion of the ankle OR assist in flexion of knee
Gastrocnemius is innervated by Tibial Nerve (S1,2)
This muscle raises the heel during running and jumping gastrocnemius
Origin of soleus Soleal line of tibia and the posterior head and upper shaft of the fibula
Insertion of Soleus Calcaneus via tendo Achilles
Action of soleus plantar flexion of ankle
Soleus is innervated by Tibial nerve (S1,2)
These two muscles, together, are known as the triceps surae Gastrocnemius and soleus
Origin of the plantaris lateral epicondyle of the femur
Insertion of the plantaris Calcaneus via tendo Achilles
Action of the plantaris Assists in plantarflexion of ankle and assists in flexion of the knee
Plantaris is innervated by Tibial Nerve (L4,5,S1)
The lower extremity counterpart to the palmaris longus and is missing in some persons. Plantaris
the plantaris lies between these two muscles soleus and gastrocnemius
Origin of the popliteus Lateral condyle of femur
Insertion of popliteus posterior proximal tibial shaft
Action of popliteus Initiates knee flexion by medial rotation of tibia to "unlock" extended knee
Popliteus is innervated by Tibial Nerve (L5, S1)
The key that umlocks the knee popliteus
Origin of Tibialis Posterior posterior tibia, posterior fibula, interosseous membrane
Insertion of tibialis posterior navicular and adjacent tarsals and metatarsals on plantar surface
Action of tibialis posterior Inversion of foot and assists in plantarflexion of ankle
tibialis posterior is innervated by Tibial nerve (L5, S1)
The tendon of this muscle is the most anterior and superficial that course around the medial malleolus tibialis posterior
Tom Dick and Harry tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallicus longus
"Tom" of Tom, Dick and Harry Tibialis Posterior
Origin of Flexor Digitorum Longus posterior tibia
Insertion of flexor digitorum longus distal phalanges of 4 lateral toes on plantar surface
Action of flexor digitorum longus Flexion of 4 lateral toes at DIP joints and assists plantar flexion of ankle
Flexor digitorum longus is innervated by Tibial Nerve (l5, S1)
"Dick" of the Tom, Dick and Harry Flexor Digitorum longus
Comparable to the flexor digitorum profundus in the hand Flexor Digitorum Longus
Origin of Flexor Hallucis Longus Posterior fibula
Insertion of Flexor Hallicus Longus Distal Phalanx of great toe
Action of flexor hallucis longus flexion of great toe at IP joint and assists in plantar flexion of the ankle
Flexor Hallucis Longus is innervated by Tibial Nerve (L5, S1, 2)
Harry of the calf muscles Flexor hallicus longus
Origin of Tibialis ANterior lateral condyle and lateral shaft of tibia, interosseous membrane
Insertion of tibialis anterior Base of 1st metatarsal, plantar surface and first (medial) cuneiform bone, plantar surface
Action of tibialis anterior dorsiflexion of ankle and inversion of foot
Tibialis anterior innervated by Deep peroneal nerve (L4,5, S1)
Paralysis of this muscle causes "foot drop" tibialis anterior
"shin splints" involve this muscle Tibialis anterior
Origin of extensor hallucis longus Anterior shaft of fibula, interosseous membrane
Insertion of Extensor hallucis longus base of distal phalanx of the great toe
action of extensor hallucis longus extension of the great toe at IP joint and assists dorsiflexion of ankle
Extensor hallucis is innervated by Deep peroneal nerve (L4,5,S1)
Comparable to the extensor pollicis longus in hand extensor hallucis longus
Origin of extensor digitorum longus lateral condyle of tibia and proximal 2/3 of anterior shaft of fibula
Insertion of extensor digitorum longus middle and distal phalanges of 4 lateral toes
Action of extensor digitorum longus extention of 4 lateral toes at MP joints and assists dorsiflexion of ankle
extensor digitorum longus innervated by deep peroneal nerve
comparable to the extensor digitorum in the hand and its tendons comprise the extensor expansion of the foot extensor digitorum longus
Origin of Peroneus (Fibularis) longus head and lateral shaft of fibula (upper 2/3)
Insertion of Peroneus (Fibularis) Longus base of first metatarsal and first (medial) cuneiform on plantar surface
Action of Peroneus (fibularis) longus eversion of foot and assist dorsiflexion of ankle
peroneus (fibularis) longus innervated by Superficial peroneal nerve (L4,5,S1)
Peroneus longus traverses the sole of the foot to meet this muscle's tendon that forms a stirrup for the foot tibialis anterior
Origin of Peroneus (fibualris) brevis lateral shaft of fibula (lower 2/3)
insertion of peroneus (fibularis) brevis base of 5th metatarsal
action of peroneus brevis eversion of foot and assists in plantar flexion of ankle
peroneus brevis is innervated by superficial peroneal nerve (L4,5, S1)
Foot evertors are especially helpful when walking on uneven surfaces
if the peroneus brevis "gives out" it can result in a sprained ligamen
Origin of peroneus(fibularis) tertius anterior distal fibula (with the extensor digitorum longus)
insertion of peroneus (fibularis) tertius base of 5th metatarsal
action of peroneus (fibularis) tertius eversion of foot and assists in dorsiflexion
peroneus (fibularis0 tertius is innervated by deep peroneal nerve (L4, 5, S1)
The muscle functions to place the foot flat on the ground by raising the lateral border peroneus (fibularis) tertius
Muscles of the foot layer 1 Abductor hallucis, Flexor Digitorum Brevis, Abductor Digiti Minimi
Abductor Hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis are innervated by medial plantar nerve
abductor digiti minimi is innervated by lateral plantar nerve
Muscles of the foot layer 2 Lumbricals and quadratus plantae
Lumbricals are innervated by 1st-medial plantar nerve2nd, 3rd, 4th-lateral plantar nerve
quadratus plantae innervated by lateral plantar nerve
muscles of the foot layer 3 Flexor hallucis brevis, adductor hallucis, flexor digiti minimi brevis
flexor hallucis brevis innervated by medial plantar nerve
adductor hallucis and flexor digiti minimi brevis are innervated by lateral plantar nerve
Muscles of the foot layer 4 dorsal inerossei (4), plantar interossei (3)
Dorsal interossei and plantar interossei are innervated by lateral plantar nerve
Lateral rotators of the hip Pififormis, gemellus superior, obturator internus, gemellus inferior, obturator externus, quadratus femoris, gluteus maximus, sartorius
medial rotators of the hip gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae, adductor magnus-anterior head
extensors of the hip gluteus maximus, biceps femoris (long head), semitendinosus, semimembranosus, adductor magnus-posterior head
flexors of the hip psoas major and iliacus, pectineus, tensor fasciae latae, adductor brevis,adductor longus, adductor magnus, rectus femoris, sartorius
abductors of the hip gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae, sartorius
adductors of the hip adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, gracilis, pectineus
lateral rotator of knee biceps femoris
medial rotators of the knee semitendinosus, semimembranosus, popliteus, gracilis, sartorius
extensor of the knee vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, tensor fascia latae
flexors of the knee bicepts femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, sartorius, gracilis, gastrocnemius, plantaris, popliteus
dorsiflexors of the ankle tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus,peroneus (fibularis) tertius, extensor hallucis longus
plantarflexors of the ankle gastrocnemius, soleus,plantaris, peroneus (fibularis) longus, peroneus (fibularis)brevis, tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus
invertors of the foot tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior
evertors of the foot fibularis tertius, fibularis longus, fibularis brevis
Origin of rectus abdominus pubis symphysis and crest
insertion of rectus abdominus costal cartilage of ribs 5,6,7 and the xiphoid process
action of rectus abdominus flexion of the trunk, supports compression of abdominal contents
rectus abdominus is innervated by ventral rami of intercostal nerves T7-T12
Small triangular muscle located at the inferior end of the rectus abdominus and present in most persons. Contraction of this muscle puts traction of the linea alba (white line) pyramidalis
Ventral midline fibrous band extending from the xiphoid process to the pubis and is the midline union of the aponeurotic sheaths which cover the abdominal muscles linea alba
divides each rectus into three or four bellies tendinous intersections
Origin of external oblique lower 8 ribs
insertion of external oblique linea alba, pubis, anterior iliac crest
action of external oblique bilaterally-flexion of trunk, compression of abdominal contentsunilaterally-lateral flexion, rotation of trunk to opposite side
external obliques innervated by ventral rami of intercostal nerves T7-T12, L1-iliohypogastric nerve and ilioinguinal nerve
Direction of muscle fibers of external oblique obliquely downward
most superficial side muscle external oblique
origin of external oblique interdigitates with serratus anterior
three abdominal muscles external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis
aponeuroses of three abdominal muscles form the rectus sheath
broad tendinous insertions aponeuroses
origin of internal oblique inguinal ligament, anterior iliac crest, thracolumbar aponeurosis
insertion of internal oblique costal cartilages of lower 4 ribs, abdominal aponeurosis and linea alba
action of internal oblique bilaterally-flexion of trunk, compression of abdominal contentsunilaterally-lateral flexion, rotation of trunk to same side
internal oblique innervated by ventral rami of intercostal nerves T8-T12, L1-iliohypogastric nerve and ilioinguinal nerve
Direction of fibers of internal oblique obliquely upward and medialward
origin of transverse abdominis inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar aponeurosis, internal surface of costal cartilages of ribs 7-12
insertion of transverse abdominis abdominal aponeurosis and linea alba, pubis
action of transverse abdominis compression of abdominal contents
transverse abdominis innervated by ventral rami of intercostal nerves T7-T12, L1-iliohypogastric nerve and ilioinguinal nerve
deepest of the abdominal muscles and the only abdominal muscle to run crosswise (horizontally medialward) transverse abdominis
origin of quadratus lumborum posterior iliac crest
insertion of quadratus lumborum 12th rib, transverse process of lumbar vertebrae 1-4
action of quadratus lumborum lateral flexion of trunk OR raises hip
quadratus lumborum is innervated by ventral rami T12-L1-4
Hip hiker quadratus lumborum
origin or Piriformis pelvis surface of sacrum
insertion of piriformis greater trochanter of femur
pirformis innervated by sacral plexus
action of piriformis lateral rotator of hip and assist in abduction when hip is flexed
origin of quadratus femoris tuberosity of ischium
insertion of quadratus femoris quadrate line
quadratus femoris innervated sacral plexus
origin of obturator internus internal or pelvis surface of obturator membrane and margin of obturator foramen
insertion of obturator internus greater trochanter
obturator internus innervated by sacral plexus
origin of obturator externus rami of pubis and ischium and external surface of obturator membrane
insertion of obturator externus greater trochanter
obterator externus innervated by obturator nerve
action of obturator internus and externus lateral rotator of hipinternus-assist in abduction when hip is flexedexternus-assist in adduction when hip flexed
origin of gemellus superior spine of ischium
insertion of gemellus superior greater trochanter
gemellus superior innervated by sacral plexus
origin of gemellus inferior tuberosity of ischium
insertion of gemellus inferior greater trochanter of femur
action of quadratus femoris lateral rotator of hip and assist in adduction of hip joint
action of gemelli lateral rotator of hip and assist in abduction when hip is flexed
Upper border of femoral triangle inguinal ligament
lateral border of femoral triangle medial border of sartorius muscle
medial border of femoral triangle medial border of adductor longus
anterior wall (roof) of femoral triangle fascia lata
posterior wall (floor) of femoral triangle iliopsoas, pectineus, adductor longus, sometimes part of adductor brevis
apex of femoral triangle leads to adductor canal
most lateral content of femoral triangle femoral nerve
centrally located vessel femoral artery pulse palpable
vein on femoral triangle femoral vein
most medially located vessels of femoral triangle lymphatics
Vessels of the femoral triangle are clinically used to withdraw venous or arterial blood or as sites for parenteral injections
Created by: chengel