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Skeletal System

Review for written test on skeletal system

QuestionAnswer
What are the factors influencing the stability of a joint? shape, size, arrangement of articular surfaces, number & positioning of ligaments, and muscle tone
What are the functional classifications of joints? 1 synarthroses, amphiarthroses, Diarthroses
What are the structural classifications of joints? 1 fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
Name and describe the classifications of fibrous joints 3 sutures: found only in skull, short connective fibers ossify in adulthood creating bony joint syndesmoses: sheet of fibrous tissue connects the bone Gomphosis: found only where teeth are anchored into alveolar socket
name and describe the classifications of cartilaginous joints 2 syncondroses: untied by hyaline cartilage symphses: united by articular cartilage which is fused to an intervening pad of fibro cartilage
what structures make up the terrible triad 1 Tibial collateral ligament, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate ligament
name and describe the types of angular movements 3 Flexion: angle between bones decreases Extension: angle between bones increases Hyperextension: beyond normal extension circumduction: combination of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction so that limb describes a cone in space abduction: movement away from midline adduction: movement towards midline
name and describe the types of special movements 3 Dorsiflexion: pointing toes up Plantar flexion: pointing toes down supination: moving forearm so that palm faces anteriorly pronation: moving forearm so that palm faces posteriorly inversion: sole of foot is turned medially eversion: sole of the foot is turned laterally protraction: forward movement in plane retraction: backward movement in plane elevation: moving superiorly along frontal plant depression: moving inferiorly along frontal plane
what is a bursae? 1 Flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid
what are the 3 types of bone cells? 1 Osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
what are the functions of the skeletal system? 1 support, protection, movement, storage (fat & minerals), and blood cell formation
describe the steps in intramembranous ossification 3 1) Formation of spongy bone within fibrous membrane: usually has only 1 ossification center 2) Osteoblasts secrete matrix which mineralizes and traps the cells into lacunae (osteocytes) 3) formation of periosteum- mesenchyme condenses on the outside of membrane and becomes the periosteum 4) Formation of compact bone plates: area between the trabeculae becomes filled with concentric lamellae and becomes mineralized, compact bone encloses medullary cavity
Primary ossification 4 1) osteoblasts of the periosteum secrete matrix: matrix mineralizes and traps the osteoblasts so that they are now osteocytes: this later of compact bone is called bone collar 2) Chondrocytes in the shaft hypertrophy and secrete alkaline phosphatase to mineralized the matrix: as the matrix calcifies, nutrients are unable to diffuse in and the chondrocytes die alone with cartilage matrix: cavities form in bone 3) Cavities are quickly invaded by blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, red marrow elements, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts: there are collectively called periosteal bud, osteoblasts secrete matrix to form trabeculae 4) Ossification centers spread proximally and distally: osteoclasts break down spongy bone to form the medullary cavity 5) at birth, long bones have a bony diaphysis surrounding a medullary cavity the epiphyses are made of cartilage
secondary ossification 3 Secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphyses secondary ossification is the same as primary ossification except that the spongy bone in the interior is retained when secondary ossification is complete, cartilage remains only as articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate
describe longitudinal growth 3 1) mitosis occurs at the distal face of the epiphyseal plate 2) chondrocytes at the proximal face hypertrophy and die: the matrix deteriorates 3) Osteoblasts in the medullary cavity ossify the cartilage spicules to form spongy bone 4) spongy bone is eventually digested by the osteoclasts the epiphyseal plate will eventually be replaced by bone: growth stops when the bone of the epiphyses and diaphysis fuse
what are the ages that longitudinal growth stops? 1 Females- 18 males-21
describe appositional growth 3 1) osteoblasts beneath the periosteum secrete matrix: grooves on the bone surface form the central canals of the Haversian canals 2) osteoclasts destroy compact bone closest to the medullary cavity, but slower rate 3) BC process is slow, it produces stronger, thicker bones, but keeps them from becoming too heavy
what four hormones control longitudinal growth 1 T3, T4, growth hormone, and somatomedin
what is the osteoid seam? 1 unmineralized band of bone matrix that reveals the site of new matrix deposition
what is the calcification front? 1 abrupt transition between osteoid seam and old bone
Describe the negative feedback hormonal mechanism that controls bone remodeling 1 PTH is release from parathyroid glands, inhibits reabsorption, increases CA in blood, stimulates release of Calcitonin, stimulates reabsorption, decreased CA in blood, stimulates release of PTH
what are the normal blood and body calcium levels? 1 Blood: 9-11 mg/100 ml of blood Body: 1200-1400 g
Describe wolff's law bone grows or remodels in response to the forces or stressors placed on it
give evidence that supports wolff's law 3 Long bones are thickest midway along the shaft Curved bones are thickest where they are most likely to buckle fetuses and bedridden ppl have featureless bones
describe the repair process of bone 1 1) hematoma formation 2) fibrocartilaginous callus formation 3) bony callus formation 4) remodeling
spine disorders 2 Scoliosis: abnormal lateral curvature kyphosis: dorsally exaggerated thoracic curvature Lordosis: accentuated lumber curvature Herniated disc: usually involved rupture of the annulus fibrosis followed by protrusion of the nucleus pulposis: can press on cord and cause numbness, pain, or destruction of nervous structures
hip dysplasia 1 Acetabula are incomplete so the heads of femurs can slip out of the hip joints
cleft palate 1 palatine processes of the maxillae and palatine bones fail to fuse medially can cause aspiration pneumonia
sprain 1 ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn
dislocation 1 bone is forced out of its normal position in a joint cavity
bursitis 1 inflammation of a bursa caused by excessive stress or friction
tendonitis 1 inflammation of tendon sheaths
osteomalacia 1 bones are inadequately mineralized
rickets 1 osteomalacia in children: causes bowed legs and deformed pelvis
osteoporosis 1 bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposition: bones become more porous and more susceptible to fracture
paget's disease 1 excessive and abnormal bone reabsorption and formation: pagetic bone has lots of spongy bone and as much compact bone: eventually osteoclasts cease functioning and causes bone thickening and filly of medullary cavity with bone
3 types of arthritis 1 Osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis gouty arthritis
crepitus 1 crunching noise resulting from contact of roughened articular surfaces
What is rheumatoid arthritis 1 Chronic inflammatory disorder: synovial membrane thickens and synovial fluid accumulates causing joint swelling: eventually the cartilage erodes and fibroblasts make fibrous tissue that connects bone ends
(Rheumatoid arthritis) age of onset and symptoms 1 30-40 anemia, osteoporosis, muscle atrophy, and cardiovascular problems
pannus 1 abnormal tissue that clings to the articular cartilage
ankylosis 1 tissue ossifies and bones become fused
what are the functions of the fontanels? 1 accommodate brain growth and allow infant head to be compressed during birth
when do the fontanels close? 1 occipital, sphenoidal, and mastoid close by age 1 and frontal close by age 2
Primary curvatures 1 Thoracic and sacral
secondary curvatures and when do they develop? 1 Cervical: baby holds head up lumbar: baby stands and walks
Created by: mchuan