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AICP Energy/Enviro

AICP Functional Areas of Practice - Energy / Resources / Environment

QuestionAnswer
Who is Rachel Carson? Author of Silent Spring, which was published in 1962. In the book, Carson examined the dangers of chemical pesticides, such as DDT, on plants, animals, and humans.
What are Effluent Standards? Set restrictions on the discharge of pollutants into the environment. Effluent guidelines reduce the discharge of pollutants that have serious environmental impacts. The EPA has effluent guidelines for more than 50 categories.
What is Point Source Pollution? Discharged directly from a specific site, such as a sewage treatment plant or an industrial pipe.
What is Non-point Source Pollution? Contaminated runoff from many sources.
What is an Aquifer? One or more strata of rock/sediment saturated & sufficiently permeable to yield economically significant quantities of water to wells or springs. Includes any geologic material that currently or could be used as a water source w/in a target distance.
What is an Estuary? An area where fresh water meets salt water.
What is a Lagoon? A shallow body of water that is located alongside a coast.
What is a Marsh? A type of fresh, brackish or salt water wetland found along rivers, ponds, lakes, and coasts. Does not accumulate appreciable peat deposits and is dominated by herbaceous vegetation.
What is a Reservoir? A pond, lake, tank, or basin that can be used for the storage and control of water, and can be either natural or man-made.
What is Surface Water? Rivers, lakes, oceans, ocean-like water bodies, and coastal tidal waters.
What is a Swamp? Freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water.
What is a Watershed? A region drained by, or contributing water to, a surface water body.
What are Wetlands? Swamps, marshes, bogs & similar areas. Areas inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency + duration sufficient to support vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Can be natural or constructed.
Types of Energy Sources Oil, natural gas, nuclear, coal, etc. Renewable energy sources include solar, wind, geothermal, etc.
What was the The Clean Water Act? 1977. (Amendment to Fed. Water Pollutant Control Act - 1972.) Requires permits for discharging pollutants into a body of water. Also regulates amount of water that may be discharged and types of pollutants.
Type of permit required from Clean Water Act? A Point Source Discharge Permit must be obtained from the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).
What was the The Clean Air Act? 1970, major amendments 1977 + 1990. Feds set standards; states devise methods to meet standards. b/c multi. locations, Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR) created to measure air quality in air sheds. Like the CWA, act requires permit to release pollutants.
What six pollutants does the Clean Air Act monitor? 1) Ozone 2) Particulate Matter 3) Carbon Monoxide 4) Nitrogen Dioxide 5) Sulfur Dioxide 6) Lead
What is Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)? PSD relates to air quality and requires that a project will not increase emissions above a specified Prevention of Significant Deterioration increment.
What are Ambient Air Quality Standards? Maximum air contaminant concentrations allowed in the ambient air.
How many non-attainment areas per Clean Air Act since 2002? 124
How much reduction in six most common air pollutants since 1970 (passage of Clean Air Act)? 25%
What is The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)? Passed 1969. Created Council on Environmental Quality. Requires Environmental Assessment to determine impact, and EIS for federal projects if EA determines significant impact.
What was the Rivers and Harbors Act? 1899. Required congressional approval for construction of any bridge, dam, dike, or causeway over navigable waterways in U.S., as well as for wharfs, piers, jetties, and excavation or fill of navigable waters.
What was the Water Pollutant Control Act? 1948. Allowed Surgeon General of Public Health Service with other governmental entities to prepare comprehensive program to eliminate or reduce pollution of interstate waters + tributaries, and improve sanitary condition of surface + underground waters.
What else did the Water Pollutant Control Act allow? Act allowed Federal Works Administrator to assist gov. agencies in constructing treatment plants that could help to prevent discharges of inadequately treated sewage and other wastes into interstate waters or tributaries.
What was the Water Quality Act? 1965. Established Water Pollution Control Administration within Department of the Interior. First time water quality was treated as environmental concern rather than a public health concern.
What was the Clean Water Act? 1966. Provided construction grants for wastewater treatment facilities.
What is the Coastal Zone Management Act? 1972. Amended 1990. Focused efforts to reduce polluted runoff in 29 coastal states.
What is the Federal Water Pollutant Control Act? 1972. Amended Water Pollutant Act of 1948. Changes broadened and restructured gov authority for water pollution under EPA. Changed enforcement from water quality standards to regulating amount of pollutants discharged from point sources.
What is the Endangered Species Act? 1973. Provided protection of animal and plant species that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service designate as threatened or endangered. Amended in 1988.
What is the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA)? 1978. Promoted alternative energy sources, energy efficiency and reduced dependence on foreign oil. Created market for non-utility power producers, requires competition in the utility industry.
What is the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)? AKA "Superfund Act." 1980. Created $1.6 billion Superfund to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites; requires major industries to annually report releases of toxic wastes into the air, water, or ground.
What is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)? 1976. Gave EPA ability to ctrl haz waste "cradle-to-grave." Incl. generation, transport, treatment, storage + disposal of haz waste, and mgmt of non-haz solid wastes. 1986 amendment covered issues w/ underground fuel and hazardous substance storage tanks.
What is the Toxic Substances Control Act? 1976. Gave EPA responsibility for reporting, record-keeping, testing requirements, and restrictions relating to chemical substances and/or mixtures. Certain substances generally excluded, including food, drugs, cosmetics and pesticides.
What is the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)? Original =1947, est. registering + labeling pesticides w/ USDA. Rewritten 1972; amended by Fed. Env. Pesticide Ctrl Act (FEPCA). Mult. amndmts since 1972 incl: Food Qual. Protect. Act (FQPA) 1996. EPA regulates pesticide use/sale to protect health/enviro.
What is the Safe Drinking Water Act? 1974. Ensures that drinking water is safe. Amended several times since. Protects the end product, but also sources of drinking water.
Brownfield Facts Often called superfund sites. Superfund = common name for CERCLA. More than 1,200 sites. Tax on petrochem industries provide funds to cleanup sites. Feds provide funds through the Superfund. Many states created funds to cleanup property.
Brownfields Facts con't Real property; expansion, redev, or reuse complicated by actual/potential presence of a haz substance, pollutant or contaminant. Cleaning up/reinvesting in properties takes development pressures off of undeveloped land, improves + protects environment.
Executive Order 12898 Issued by Clinton, 1994. Requires that fed agencies make achieving enviro justice part of mission by addressing disproportionate adverse enviro / health impacts of policies, programs and activities on minority and low-income populations.
EPA's Environmental Indicators Initiative Provides information on the best indicators and data on environmental issues.
Biomass Energy Uses organic material which is burned to create energy.
Methane Naturally occurring byproduct of decaying plant and animal material. Gas is burned to produce electricity.
Hydroelectric power Typically associated with large dams. It uses falling water to produce power, which is moved through a turbine, causing it to spin. The spinning turbine is coupled with a generator, which produces energy.
Solar Energy Can be used to heat homes through panels. This power uses photovoltaic panels to convert sunlight directly into electricity. The panels can be added together to create large systems.
Wind power Growing in popularity in many parts of the U.S. Turbines are tall (100+ feet) in order to catch the wind more efficiently. Farms made up of wind turbines built close together. Found in coastal, mountain, or other regions with a constant wind supply.
R-value Thermal resistance rating for insulation. Indicates the resistance to heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulation. A minimum R-value of 20 is recommended for residential use.
Reducing a thermostat one degree will result in money savings of what? Between 1-3%, according to energystar.gov
Created by: SunCityCyclers