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Anatomy: Joints

Lecture 8: Development of Bones; Joints

What is a joint? 3 Main Classes Where two different pieces of skeleton join Cartilaginous, Synovial, Fibrous
Fibrous Joints skeletal only joined by ligaments 1. suture 2. syndesmosis
Syndesmosis Fibrous ligament with good-sized ligament joining skeletal elements e.g.ligament at distal end of tibia and fibula interosseous membranes, ligamentous sheets between ulna & fibula
Synchondrosis cartilaginous joint of hyaline cartilage e.g. epiphyseal plates
Symphysis fibrocartilage holds bones together ex. pubic symphysis & annulus fibrosus of intervetertebral discs Allows some movement but not as much as synovial joint
Synovial Joints Highly movable joints (e.g.shoulder, knee, hip, wrist) Have capsules and cavities
Fibrous Articular capsule (joint capsule) capsule is ligamentous (dense regular connective tissue). Keep joint from pulling apart Acts as a bag that keeps fluid in joint cavity from bursting out
Articular cartilage absorb some of compressive stress. Bounce back and re-expand always film of synovial fluid between them
Synovial membrane inner layer of joint capsule,layer of connective tissue proper. makes synovial fluid, derived from blood to maintain rich blood supply No membrane on articular cartilage
synovial fluid slippery, viscous lubricant that fills joint cavity consistency of raw egg white (synovial means "joint egg") reduces friction as slippery as ice on polished ice
Articular disc (meniscus) rings of fibrocartilage that occur in some synovial joints, subdivide joint cavity uper shaped differently than lower allow two distinct types of movement allow bone-ends to fit together better e.g. jaw joint, knee joint, etc.
What also aids in relieving stresses in synovial joints? Ligaments help a. thicken fibrous walls of joint capsule b. seperate ligaments internal to capsule c. seperate ligaments outside of capsule
What is it called when these ligaments/fibrous capsule is stretched or torn sprained (e.g. sprained ankle)
Why so many nerves in synovial ligaments and where? very innervated primarily to fibrous joint capsule sensitive to position of joint capsule and how it is being stretched, for brain to maintain balance and coordinate movements
Propriocetion monitoring of joint stretch
Where to blood vessels go? not to the fibrous articular capsule (joint capsule) but to the synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid
What does articular disc of temporo-mandibular joint allow? hinge-like rotation and anterior gliding movement of mandibular head
What kind of joints dislocate easily? Shallow socketed joints dislocate easier than deep sockets like elbow and hig joints
Created by: madhatter