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Ch. 16 & 17

Absolutism and Constitutionalism in the East and the West

What is absolutism centralized government authority that allowed a king to rule iwth greater power and control, without limitation from other sources of authority of power
What is constitutionalism limitation of power of government by law, including the protection of rights
When was Henry IV crowned? 1589
What were some of the things that Henry IV did? solved problems reduced taxes; issued the Edict of Nantes
Which European country was the first to fully adopt absolutism? Who is considered the greatest absolute monarch? France; Louis XIV
Which countries in western Europe adopted constitutionalism? England and Netherlands
How and when did Henry IV die? murdered in 1610 by CAtholic fanatic
Who was Cardinal Richelieu? became part of the council who ruled during Louis XIII's regency; handled many of the responsibilities that should have belonged to the king
What was cardinal Richelieu's viewpoint on absolutism believed that there should be a total subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy; crushed opposition
Why did Richelieu hire Intendants? hired from new judicial nobility, sent oto districts away from their homes, directly responsible to the king
What did Richelieu do in 1627? ended Huguenot politics and military independence; siege and fall of the La Rochelle
What were some of the ways the French state was strengthened? standardization of FRench language; tough anti-Habsburg foreign policy; intendants
What was the "raison d'etat"? (reason of state) used by Richelieu to justify actions of the state that would otherwise be judged as immoral if committed by a commoner
Who replace Richelieu in 1642 Cardinal Mazarin
When did Louis XIV come to power? 1643
What was a result of centralization in Louis XIV rule? the Frond (civil war 1648-1653)
What did Louis XIV make the nobles do in order to increase his power? convinced them to spend time at Versailles and kept them busy
What are other ways that louis XIV increased his power? chose councilors of state from recently ennobled and upper middle class; use secret police, spying, terror; recruited soldiers by impressment, conscription and lottery; hired foreign mercenaries
Who was Jean-Baptiste Colbert controller general of fincances
What is mercantilism resources are limited, so export, but don't import and steal from your neighbors; profitable trading
what happened as a part of mercantilism? peasants highly taxed; colonies (Quebec 1608)
When was the Edict of Nantes revoked and why was it revoked? 1685; Louis XIV believed that there should be "one king, one law, one faith"
What was an effect of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes exile immigration hurt FRance's economy
What was French Classicism resembled art of Renaissance Italy; great court ceremonies and daily rituals; drama (Moliere and Racine)
Who was france eventually defeated by during their expanse of territory? Holland
what happened during the second half of Louis XIV's reign? bankrupted by continual wars that were often not successful
What was Spain like at the end of the Habsburgs? lacked a middle class; expensive wars; government rules made business difficult; poor royal leadership
Describe Charles II of Spain physically and mentally defective; generation of interbreeding-his parents were more closely related than a normal brother & sister
What was the war of the spanish succession? things weren't right with Charles II and he didn't have an heir; European powers decided to divide the Spanish empire between France and hre (1698)
AFter Charles II's death what happened to Spain? Spanish Empire went to Louis XIV's grandson Philip of Anjou
What was a result of the Charles will dutch, english, austrians and prussians formed the grand alliance again Louis XIV; in Utrecht 1713, decided that Spain and France would never be united
Who was the big winner in the war of the spanish succession england
What was the Peace of Utrecht 1713? beginning of "balance of power principle; completion of spain decline; spain and france would never be united
Constitutionalism is not ___ democratic
Elizabeth I political shrewdness and skill allowed her to exercise a lot of power, worked with Parliament (last Tudor monarch
Henry VII involves parliament indecision for reformation
James I of Scotland (Elizabeth I's cousin); new Stuart dynasty -less skill -tried to be absolutist
How were economics in Enlgand growing faster than inflation; better agricultural techniques; government allowed and supported commerce;
What was the house of lords? all nobles; wealthy through commercer
house of commons middle class;
How did James I see parliament as a threat; made it his enemy by lecturing it on absolutism
What did parliament want political power equal with their economic power
religion in England dominant religious groups that were Calvinist by the early 1600's were dissatisfied with the church of England
the more zealous calvinists were puritans; didn't believe Henry VIII and Elizabeth I had gone far enough
what was the protestant ethic emphasized hard work sobriety, thrift, linked sin with poverty, weakness
(1625-1649); calvinist, but imposed rituals like C of E; dissolved parliament in 1629, but needed money to fight scots in 1640
What did Charles I imposition of prayer book and bishops on Presbyterian Scots lead to revolt
What was the "Long Parliament" 1640-1660; commons passed triennial act without the approval of the king; threatened to abolish biships
What was the triennial act parliament meets every 3 yrs.
What did the "Long Parliament" lead to irish revolution
English Civil WAr Parliament and Charles fought for soverignety
What happened to charles was executed by parliament in 1649
What was the interregnum? 1649-1660; no king; parliament; coucil of state
Who was oliver cromwell controlled the army during the interregnum; the "Lord Protector"; tore up contitution and ruled as military dictator using army
What was the restoration? 1658; people wanted stability and were weary of military government & attempts to create a community of puritanical saints (like Geneva); Charles II recalled from France
What were the unresolved issues of the restoration status of various Christian groups; relation ship between king & parliament
What was the secret agreement with Louis XIV? because parliament did not provide enough funds to Charles he mad a secret agreement with Louis XIV for 200,000 pounds a year
James II (1685-1688) appointed Catholics to important positions in violation of law; wife had a son- fear of Catholic absolutist dynasty in French Style
What happened during the glorious revolution? sovereignty divided between king & parliament; Mary and William signed English Bill of rights;
Why was it called the glorious revolution? solved with not really any bloodshed
What was the british government after the Bill of rights? parliament represented the upper classes; became more democratic; cabinet system developed; king became less involved over time
What was the cabinet system leading minsters formulate common policy & conduct the business of the country
Thomas Hobbes wrote the Leviathan. What were his beliefs? the monarch gets power from the people; kings have absolute power but not divine right
John Locke wrote the second treatise of civil government. What did he believe the role of government is to protect natural rights; does have to be tyrannical
What happened during the Dutch Golden Age religious toleration; much achievement; states general;toleration of Jews; Dutch East India Company
What were regents handled domestic affairs in the states
What was the states general handled foreign affairs; appointed a representative in each province; dominated by Holland; monarchy remained, but middle-class ran government;
Created by: 3j0mk1