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Anatomy: Bone

Lecture 7: Cartilage, Bone, Skeletal System

Compact Bone Outer Layer
Spongy Bone (Cancellous bone/trabecular bone) network of bone-pieces (called trabeculae or spicules)
Trabeculae Individual bone pieces in spongy bone network
Where is bone marrow located? between spaces of trabeculae
medullary cavity (marrow cavity) middle of long bones that still contains bone marrow but not trabeculae
Periosteum membrane of dense connective tissue that covers every bone in body lays down bones during repair and growth
Endosteum covers inner surface of compact bone and trabeculae
How much compression can bones resist? 25,000 lbs. per square inch not only weight-bearing columns but bending force tension allowed by collagen
Diaphysis shaft of bone (growth between)
Epiphysis ends (Growth upon)
Nutrient Artery artery Located in the middle of the shaft
Epiphyseal artery Artery located into ephyphsis
Why does it hurt so bad when bones are broken? Supply to periosteum is rich in blood supply and highly innervated
Osteocytes Most numerous of bone components like fibroblast and chondrocyte. shaped like spider, central cell body (nucleus) occupy lacunae (hollow space in matrix)
Canaliculi cell processes of osteocytes connected by these tiny canals nutrients from blood capillaries carried from osteocyte to osteocyte by these junctions Maintain extracellular matrix sense stresses blase on matrix, signal remodeling accordingly
Osteoblasts NOT located in matrix but periosteium, enosteum hemisphere shaped Bone forming cells become osteocytes once matrix calcifies them
Osteoclasts Bone-resorbing/destroying derived from blood-forming cells in bone marrow, not bone-forming cells
Woven Bone of Compound Bone present in development, 1st type of bone tissue between embryonic blood vessels matrix appears uniform
Lamellar Bone of Compound Bone mature bone replaces woven bone in fetus in adults, all bone tissue lamellar
lamellae sheet bent into tube resists twisting
osteon Haversian system column system
Central Canal middle of osteon filled with loose connective tissue supply nutrients to living bone cells especially osteocytes in wall of osteon
Why do bone components specifically undergo constant eating away and replacement? allow constant turnover of calcium and phosphate between bone and body fluids Also realign the osteon pillars along new lines of compression
How are bones classified? to whether or not they are first formed in cartilage Membrane bones endochondral bones
Membrane Bones not from cartilage but membranes from mesenchyme Only related bone in humans is skull bones (not including condyles and base of skull) Form by intramembranous ossification
Mesenchyme tissue that gives rise to connective tissue
Endochondral Bones all other bones formed by cartilage first not including clavicles but vertebrae, long bones of limbs, fingers/toes Endochondral ossification, which begins
When does endochondral ossification begin in development end of the 8th week (late embryo/early fetus) ends 15 to 20 years later, when skeleton stops growing Only increase bones in length
What does growing bone contain (hard tissue) Hyaline Cartilage Calcified Cartilage Bone Tissue
What are the steps of Endochondreal ossification? 1. Periosteum Forms 2. Cartilage Calcifies in Shaft 3. Artery enters, first spongy bone forms 4. Epiphyses takes form 5. Ephyses start to ossify (Begins at birth) 6. Growth occurs at epiphyseal plates 7. Closure of epip plates
Mesenchyme From artery, comes these cells that turn into osteoblasts.
How long will epiphyses take form? Chondrocytes will continue to promote efficient growth from fetal period to time of birth
What signals the ephyseal plates (growth plates) to grow? growth hormone, from pituitary gland sex hormone speeds growth but eventually stops growth as adolescence ends
How do bones widen? Osteoblasts in the periosteum add bone to outside of diaphysis while osteoclasts erode away inner wall at same rate.
Created by: madhatter