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Anatomy: Ch.7 Vocab

The Nervous System (Vocab)

TermDefinition
Nervous System fast-acting control system that employs nerve impulses to trigger muscle contraction or gland secretion
Sensory Input Receptors monitor change inside and outside of the body and send info to integrating center.
Integration A function in the nervous system which processes and Interprets sensory input and then makes decisions.
Motor Output Dictates a response by activating effector organs.
Central Nervous System (CNS) the part of the nervous system made up of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Outside the CNS
Sensory (Afferent) Division signals picked up by sensor receptors; carried by nerve fiber of PNS to CNS.
Motor (Efferent) Division Signals are carried away from CNS; Innervate muscles and glands.
Somatic (Voluntary) Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
Involuntary Nervous System
Neuroglia (glia) these fill spaces, support neurons, provide structural frameworks, produce myelin, and carry on phagocytosis
Astrocytes Star shaped cells found throughout the CNS, cleaning up debris in the extracellular space and removing neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft, connects neurons to nearby cappilaries, components of the blood-brain barrier
Microglia type of neuroglial cell that phagocytizes bacterial cells and debris
Ependymal Cells atypical epithelial cells that line chambers and passageways filled with cerebrospinal fluid in the brain and spinal cord. assist in producing, circulating and monitoring CSF
Oligodendrocytes type of neuroglial cell that produces myelin in the CNS wrap there cell processes around the axon in the CNS.
Schwann Cells Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.
Neurons (Nerve Cells) the basic building block of the nervous system
Nissl Substance the material consisting of granular endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes that occurs in nerve cell bodies and dendrites.
Processes (Fibers)
Dendrites branching extensions of neuron that receives messages from neighboring neurons
Axons long, thin fibers that transmit signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons or to muscles and glands
Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released, travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, influences whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
Synaptic Cleft the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
Myelin Sheath insulate axons & increase rate of impulse conduction and are fatty layers.
Neurilemma the outer nucleated cytoplasmic layer of the schwann cell, which encloses the myelin sheath and can regenerate- found in the PNS only
Nodes of Ranvier gaps between the myelin wrappings along the axon
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord
Ganglia masses of nerve cell bodies, usually outside the CNS
White Matter In The Spinal cord; located on the outer layer of the spinal cord. Only contains Myelinated axons running between different parts of the axon
Gray Matter contains mostly nerve cell bodies and un-myelinated fibers. Gray area of the central nervous system; contains neuronal cell bodies and their dendrites
Interneurons (Association Neurons) Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Multipolar Neuron Neurons whose bodies lie in the brain and spinal cord
Bipolar Neurons Neurons whose bodies lie in specialized parts of the eyes, ears and nose.
Unipolar Neurons Neurons whose bodies are located outside of the brain and spinal cord; found in basal ganglia
Polarized
Depolarization
Local Depolarization
Repolarization
Reflexes
Meningitis inflammation of the meninges caused by viral or bacterial infection
Encephalitis inflammation of the brain, caused by infection or an allergic reaction
Hydrocephalus a condition in which fluid accumulates in the brain, typically in young children, enlarging the head and sometimes causing brain damage
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) progressive mental deterioration that can occur in middle or old age, due to generalized degeneration of the brain.
Cerebral Palsy a condition marked by impaired muscle coordination (spastic paralysis)
Anencephaly the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development.
Spina Bifida a congenital defect of the spine in which part of the spinal cord and its meninges are exposed through a gap in the backbone
Created by: Cway