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Ch 12

practice exam

What is associated with the temporal lobe? Auditory area, language/speech comprehension area
What is associated with the parietal lobe? Primary sensory cortex
What is associated with the frontal lobe? Somatic motor cortex, motor speech area, premotor area, seat of intelligence, abstract reasoning
What is associated with the Occipital lobe? Visual area
What is associated with the Insula? Taste (Gustatory) area
Describe the Thalamus: a major relay station for sensory information ascending to primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Contains many specialized nuclei.
Describe the prefrontal area: This brain area associates experiences necessary for the production of abstract ideas, judgment, and conscience.
Describe the Primary Motor Cortex: The axons from this area form the major pyramidal tracts.
Describe the Hypothalamus: This area is the main visceral control center of the body.
Stage 1 of sleep: Eyes closed and relaxation begins, very easy to awaken; EEG shows ALPHA waves; may even deny being asleep.
Stage 2 of sleep: EEG pattern is irregular with sleep spindles. arousal is more difficult.
Stage 3 of sleep: Sleep deepens; theta and delta waves appear; Vital signs decline; dreaming is common.
Stage 4 of sleep: EEG pattern is dominated by delta waves; skeletal muscles are relaxed; the stage when vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature) reach their lowest normal levels.
REM sleep: Indicated by movement of the eyes under the lids; dreaming occurs. Begins about 90 minutes after the onset of sleep. Is necessary for emotional health; may be neural "debugging"
The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the: Medulla
The nonspecific ascending pathways are involved in: The emotional aspects of perception.
The superchiasmatic nucleus is found in the: Hypothalamus
Nuclei of the cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the: Pons
The arbor vitae refers to: Cerebellar white matter
The brain stem consists of the: Midbrain, Medulla, and Pons
The primary auditory cortex is located in the: Temporal lobe
What do spinocerebellar tracts do? carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
The spinal cord has gray matter on the: inside, white matter on the outside, and a ventral motor root
The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges? Arachnoid and Pia
Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in: The dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
The fissure separating the cerebral hemispheres is the: Longitudinal fissure
The limbic association area of the multimodal association areas provide our: Emotional impact
A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a: Sulcus
The cerebrospinal fluid is formed mostly by: The choroid plexuses and modified by ependymal cells.
If the posterior portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly: The spinal cord may be affected
The central sulcus separates which lobes? Frontal from parietal
Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be: lateral spinothalamic
What can you find in the cerebral cortex? Cell bodies, unmyelinated axons, and dendrites
The thermostat for the body since it regulates temperature is the: Hypothalamus
The white matter of the spinal cord contains: Myelinated and Unmyelinated nerve fibers
A lateral tract in the spinal cord would be: Rubrospinal
An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in: Paraplegia
Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the: Upper motor neurons
Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called: Gyri
The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the: Lateral sulcus
Brodmann's numbering refers to: Structurally distinct cortical areas
Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are: Pyramidal and Corticospinal
An individual who can trace a picture of a bike with his finger but couldnt recognize it as a bike, most likely has sustained damage to the: Visual association area
Broca's area is considered a: Motor speech area
The function of commissures is to connect: Corresponding areas of the two hemispheres
The blood-brain barrier is effective against: Metabolic waste such as urea
What are the parts of Basal Nuclei? Globus pallidus, lentiform nucleus, and putamen
What are the structures of the Limbic system? Cingulate gyrus, amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampus
What are the Midbrain structures? Cerebral peduncles, Red nucleus, And corpora quadrigemina
The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called: Consolidation
What does an Electroencephalogram do? indicates a normal frequency range 1-30 Hz
What is the reticular formation? The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex.
What can be found in normal cerebrospinal fluid? Potassium, protein, and glucose
REM sleep is associated with: Temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for the extrinsic eye muscles.
A man was injured in an accident that completely severed his spinal cord at the level of T12. What would you expect to find? Paralysis of the lower extremities, Loss of sensation below the level of injury, perspiration in the affected area.
Injury to the hypothalamus may result in: Pathologic sleep, production of excessive quantities of urine, and loss of body temperature control.
White matter of the spinal cord contains: the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
Whats an accurate statement about aging? Despite some neuronal loss, changing synaptic connections support additional learning throughout life.
What is the most accurate association regarding the function and location of the cerebrum? Motor-anterior
Brain wave amplitude reflects: the number of neurons firing synchronously
Where is declarative memory stored in the brain? amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus
Huntington's Disease: a fatal hereditary disorder caused by accumulation of the protein huntingtin that leads to degeneration of the basal nuclei. It has symptoms that are the opposite of parkinsons disease.
The corpus striatum plays a special role in: Skill learning
Storing information in long-term memory is facilitated by: the release of norepinephrine
Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equillibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are called: Vestibular nuclei
which structures are probably directly involved in memory? Amygdala, Prefrontal cortex, Hippocampus
The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the: Visceral sensory area
What is true about a coma? Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time.
Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are all characteristics of: Parkinson's disease
What is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury? Concussion
Declarative memory is: The ability to learn specific information
What is involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)? Red nuclei
Half of infant sleep is composed of: REM sleep
10 yr olds are in REM sleep about how many hours per night? 1.5-2 hours
Sleep requirements: decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again in old age.
What is an accurate statement about epilepsy? epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and tumor.
White matter (myelinated fibers) are often found in which locations? Corticospinal tracts, outer portion of spinal cord, and corpus callosum
Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the: Thalamus
Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscle, might suggest damage to the: Premotor cortex
Theta waves are: not normal for awake adults but are common for children
The largest nuclear mass in the midbrain is the: Substantia nigra
Created by: Chanellenae
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