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the study of body structure Anatomy
the study of how the body functions Physiology
the study of disease Pathology
What are known as the basic units of life? Cells
the skin with its associated structures Integumentary system
the basic framework of the body including the 206 bones and the joints between them, collectively known as the skeleton Skeletal system
produces movement, give the body structure, protect organs, and maintain posture. Muscular system
made up of the brain and spinal cord which control and coordinate the body Nervous system
Endocrine system produce hormones that regulate such body activities as growth, food utilization within the cells, and reproduction.
Cardiovascular system made up of the heart and blood vessels which pumps blood to all the body tissues, bringing with it nutrients, oxygen, and other needed substances.
Lymphatic system assist in circulation by bringing fluids from the tissues back to the blood. Organs of the lymphatic system, such as the tonsils, thymus gland, and the spleen, play a role in immunity, protecting against disease.
Respiratory system made up of the lungs and the passages leading to and from the lungs. The purpose of this system is to take in air and conduct it to the areas designed for gas exchange.
Digestive system comprised of all the organs that are involved with taking in nutrients, converting them into a form that body cells can use, and absorbing these nutrients into the circulation.
Urinary system rids the body of waste products and excess water.
Reproductive system includes the external sex organs and all related internal structures that are concerned with the production of offspring.
All the life-sustaining reactions that go on within the body systems together make up metabolism.
Catabolism complex substances are broken down into simpler compounds
Anabolism building phase of metabolism
What is the “energy currency” of the cell? ATP
Define homeostasis The steady state within the organism
Extracellular fluids all body fluids outside the cells
Intracellular fluid contained within the cells
Blood examples of extracellular fluid
Lymph examples of extracellular fluid
fluid between cells in tissues examples of extracellular fluid
Negative feedback reverses any downward or upward shift
Positive feedback a given action promotes more of the same
anatomical position Standing upright with face front, arms at the sides with palms forward, and feet parallel
Superior above
Inferior below
Ventral/anterior located toward the belly surface or front of the body
Dorsal/posterior refer to locations nearer the back
Cranial nearer to the head
Caudal nearer the sacral region
Medial nearer to the midline
Lateral farther away from the midline
Proximal nearer the origin of a structure
Distal farther from the origin of a structure
Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
Sagittal plane divides the body into left and right sections
Transverse (horizontal) plane divides the body into superior and inferior sections
Dorsal Body Cavity cranial and spinal cavity
Spinal Cavity contains the spinal cord
Ventral Body Cavity thoracic and abdominpelvic cavity
Thoracic Cavity contains the heart, lungs, mediastinum and large blood vessels that join the heart.
Abdominal Cavity contains the stomach, most of the intestine, the liver, the gallbladder, the pancreas and the spleen
Pelvic Cavity contains the urinary bladder, the rectum, and the internal parts of the reproductive system
Diaphragm muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
Three central regions of the abdomen from superior to inferior Epigastric, Umbilical, Hypogastric
Regions of the abdomen on the right and left from superior to inferior Hypochondriac, Lumbar, Iliac (inguinal)
Quadrants of the abdomen Right Upper Quadrant, Left Upper Quadrant, Right Lower Quadrant, Left Lower Quadrant
The metric system is based on multiples of 10
Kilo 1000
Centi 1/100
Milli 1/1000
Micro 1/1,000,000
Length meter
Weight gram
Volume liter
What temperature scale is used for scientific measurement Celsius temperature scale
Created by: cvtech