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the nervous system

thibodeau a&p

the central nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord
the peripheral nervous system composed of nerves extending to the outlying or peripheral parts of the body
autonomic nervous system a subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that consists of structures that regulate the body's autonomic or involuntary functions
neurons nerve cells that conduct impulses
glia support cells that support neurons by holding them together
cell body the main part of the neuron
dendrites branching projections that transmit impulses to the neuron cell bodies
axon one elongated projection from the cell body that transmits impulses away from the cell body
sensory neurons transmit impulses to the spinal cord and brain from all parts of the body. Also called afferent neurons.
motor neurons transmit impulses away from the spinal cord and brain to muscle and glandular epithelial tissue. Also called efferent neurons.
interneurons conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons
myelin white, fatty substance formed by schwann cells that wrap around some axons outside the CNS
nodes of Ranvier indentations between adjacent schwann cells
neurilemma the outer cell membrane of a schwann cell; play an important role in the regeneration of cut or injured axons
glioma a common type of brain tumor
astrocytes star-shaped glia cells that have extensions that attach to blood vessels in the brain
blood brain barrier two-layer structure that separates the blood tissue and nervous tissue to protect vital brain tissue from harmful chemicals in the blood
microglia smaller than astrocytes; act as microbe-eating scavengers by helping clean up cell damage resulting from injury or disease
oligodendrocytes help hold nerve fibers together and produce the fatty myelin sheaths that envelope nerve fibers in the CNS
schwann cells glia cells that also form myelin sheaths, but only in the PNS
nerve a group of peripheral nerve fibers (axons) bundled together; they usually have a myelin sheath and appear white
tracts bundles of axons in the CNS that are myelinated and form the white matter of the brain and spinal cord
gray matter brain and spinal cord tissue composed of cell bodies and unmylinated axons
endoneurium thin wrapping of fibrous connective tissue surrounding each axon
fasicles groups of wrapped axons
perineurium thin, fibrous covering of fasicles
epineurium tough, fibrous sheath that covers the whole nerve
action potentials nerve impulses that travel over routes made of neurons
reflex arc the basic type of neuron pathway
two-neuron arc pathway that consists of sensory and motor neurons
three-neuron arc pathways that consists of sensory, interneurons, and motor neurons
receptors the beginnings of dendrites of sensory neurons
ganglion a group of nerve cell bodies located in the PNS
synapse a space separating the axon ending from the dendrites of another neuron
effectors muscles or glands that form a synapse with a motor neuron axon which puts the nerve signals into effect
reflex response to nerve conduction over a reflex arc
nerve impulse a self-propagating wave of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron's plasma membrane; has to be initiated by a stimulus
synaptic knob a tiny bulge at the end of a terminal branch of a presynaptic neuron's axon; contain vesicles that contain neurotransmitters
synaptic cleft the space between the synaptic knob and the plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron where neurotransmitters are released
neurotransmitters chemicals by which neurons communicate
medulla oblongata the lowest part of the brainstem; contains white and gray matter that form the reticular formation (net-like)
pons and midbrain parts of the brainstem that contain white matter with scattered bits of gray matter
reflex centers located in the medulla; impulses from these centers control heartbeat, respiration, and blood vessel diameter
cerebellum 2nd larges part of the brain; it allows for a huge amount of information processing and plays an essential part in the production of normal movements
arbor vitae white matter tracts of the cerebellum that branch into a tree-like patterm
diencephalon a small part of the brain located below the cerebellum and above the midbrain.
3 parts of the diencephalon hypothalamus, thalamus, and the pineal gland
hypothalamus exerts major control over virtually all internal organs; maintains the body's water balance through antidiuretic hormone
thalamus dumbell-shaped section of gray matter that produces sensations of pleasantness and unpleasantness
pineal gland receives sensory information about the strength of light seen by the eyes and adjust its output with melatonin
cerebrum largest, uppermost part of the brain
gyri ridges in the cerebrum
sulci grooves of the cerebrum
fissures deepest sulci
cerebral cortex thin layer of gray matter make up of neuron dendrites and cell bodies that forms the surface of the cerebrum
basal nuclei (basal ganglia) islands of gray matter in the interior cerebrum that produce automatic movements and posture
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) a hemorrhage from or cessation of blood flow through cerebral blood vessels; a stroke
17"-18" length of spinal cord if you are of average height
8 number of cervical nerve pairs
12 number of thoracic nerve pairs
5 number of lumbar nerve pairs
5 number of sacral nerve pairs
1 number of coccygeal nerve pair
31 total number of spinal cord nerve pairs
12 number of cranial nerve pairs
ascending tracts conduct impulses to the brain (sensory)
descending tracts conduct impulses away from the brain (motor)
meninges tough, fluid-containing membrane surrounding the spinal cord and brain
dura mater the tough outer layer covering the brain
arachnoid mater middle layer resembling a cobweb; contains CSF
pia mater innermost layer covering the spinal cord itself
dermatomes skin surface areas that are supplied by a single spinal nerve
two divisions of the autonomic nervous system sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
autonomic neurons motor neurons that make up the autonomic nervous system
ganglia "junction boxes" where axons connect in the autonomic nervous system
preganglionic neurons autonomic neurons that conduct impulses between the spinal cord and the ganglion
postganglionic neurons the dendrites and cell bodies that connect the synapse from the preganglionic axons
autonomic or visceral effectors the tissues to which autonomic neurons conduct impulses (cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glandular epithelial tissue)
sympathetic nervous system functions as an emergency system; fight or flight response
parasympathetic nervous system regulates functions that are autonomic or involuntary in ways that maintain or restore homeostasis
Created by: mtuhacek



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