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Clinical Pathology

Blood collection for Dog Jugular Cephalic Lateral Saphenous
Blood collection site for Horse Jugular Lateral Thoracic Transverse Facial
Blood collection site for Cow Coccygeal Vein
Blood collection site for cat Jugular Cephalic Medial Femoral
Blood collection site for rabbit Lateral Saphenous Jugular-stressful Cephalic-small volume Ear vein-Emergency only
Clinical Chemistry Measures the concentration of substances in bodily fluid
Clinical Pathology Diagnosis and evaluation of disease by studying samples from the body.
5 Types of clinical Pathology equipment Blood analyzer Refractometer Microscope Table top centrifuge Microhematocrite centrifuge
Use of a refractometer Measures TS(total solids) and SG(specific gravity) by comparing the concentration of the sample to distilled water.
Define TS Total solids AKA total protein. A crude measurement of the amount of protein in the blood, specifically albumin.
Use of a microscope Evaluate blood, urine, bodily fluids, parasitology.
Use of a centrifuge Used for separation and concentration
Normal value for PCV 35-45%
How long to run a Microhematocrite centrifuge? 3 minutes
How long to run a table top centrifuge? 8-10 minutes
Define CBC and its components Complete blood count. RBC count and morphology. WBC count. Platelet count. Hemoglobin. Hematocrit.
Chemistry analyzer test examines? B.U.N Blood urea nitrogen Creatinine Glucose
Equipment used for blood draw? Needle Syringe vacutainer-for large animals catheter
Define fasted sample Sample collected when the animal has not eaten in 8-12hrs
Define postprandial sample Sample collected after the animal has eaten.
Palma vs serum Plasma contains clotting factors
Preserving whole blood Refrigerated. Best results within 15 mins after collection.
Preserving Plasma Refrigerate only if testing will happen 12 hours later. Can be frozen. At room temp for testing.
Preserving serum Refrigerate after clotting (20-30 mins)
Anticoagulant Chemicals that prevent the formation of a blood clot.
Purple top tube EDTA: Anticoagulant. Used for CBC.
Green top tube Contains Heparin. Used if plasma is needed.
Blue top blood tube Contains sodium citrate. Used for blood stored for blood transfusions.
Red top tube No anticoagulant. Used when serum is required.
Define Microtainer Very small amount of anticoagulant in them. Used for exotics and small animals.
Azotemia An elevation of blood urea nitrogen BUN and serum Creatinine levels.
Cystocentesis Insert a needle into the bladder to collect sterile urine.
Uremia Clinical manifestations of significant renal disease. Clinical signs include vomiting, anorexia, lethargy.
GFR Glomerular Filtration Rate: the rate at which fluid and constitutes leave blood and become filtrate.
B.U.N Blood Urea Nitrogen
Glucosuria Glucose in the urine
Oliguria Decreased urine output
Stranguria Straining to urinate
Pollakiuria Increase in Frequency of urine production.
Anuria Not urinating
Dysuria Difficulty urinating
Polyuria Increased urination
Hematuria Bloody urine
Four ways to collect a urine sample Free catch Manual compression Catheterization Cystocentesis
Red top container for urine means? It is a sterile sample to be used for bacterial cultures.
How long can urine be refrigerated for? 6-12 hours
Specific Gravity is the only test of Renal function in a routine UA
Renal Threshold When tubular reabsorption of glucose can no longer keep up with the Glomerular filtration rate causing glucose to be present in the urine.
Azotemia Increased BUN/ Creatinine
Uremia Clinical manifestations of significant renal disease.
Created by: Ms. Melanie
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