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Ch 11 practice exam

nervous system and nervous tissue

Where are neurotransmitters released? Axon terminal
What are Nissl bodies? The rough ER of the cell
What is the receptive region of the neuron? Dendrites
What is the conducting region of the neuron? Axon
What happens during the absolute refractory period? Period during which the neuron CANNOT respond to a second stimulus, no matter how strong.
What happens during the depolarization period? The interior of the cell becomes less negative due to an influx of sodium ions.
What is action potential? a nerve impulse transmitted by axons.
What happens during the relative refractory period? an exceptionally strong stimulus can trigger a response.
What is temporal summation? Numerous nerve impulses arriving at a synapse at closely timed intervals exert a cumulative effect.
What is spatial summation? Stimulation of a postsynaptic neuron by many terminals at the same time.
What is subthreshold stimulus? An insufficient stimulus.
What is Threshhold stimulus? Any stimulus below this intensity will result in no response in a neuron.
What is a reverberating circuit? A neural circuit in which a single impulse is transmitted over and over.
What do Direct-acting neurotransmitters do? open ion channels to provoke rapid responses.
What is true about Ohm's law? Current is directly proportional to the voltage.
What are ependymal cells? Cilliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid.
The sheath of Schwann is also called the: Neurilemma
Where are Bipolar neurons commonly found? The retina of the eye.
What is acetylcholine? An excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle.
What is a neural circuit in which a single impulse is transmitted over and over called? Reverberating circuit
What is the period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is NOT sensitive to another stimulus? Absolute refractory period
A neural circuit that concentrates or directs a large number of incoming impulses to a rather small number of neurons is called a: Converging circuit
What are the structural features of a neuron? Nissl bodies, axon, dendrites
What is the part of the neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body called? the axon
The chemically gated channel, NMDA, allows which ions entry into the nerve cell? Ca2+ Ions
The point at which an impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell is the: Synapse
What is the role of Acetylcholinesterase? To destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axonal endings.
What are some functions of the autonomic nervous system? Innervation of smooth muscle and digestive tract, Innervation of cardiac muscle, Innervation of glands
What are collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system called? Ganglia
The term central nervous system refers to the: Brain and spinal cord
What substance is released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse? Neurotransmitter
A neuron that has as its primary function the job of connecting other neurons is called a: Association neuron
What makes saltatory conduction possible? the myelin sheath
Which ion is actively transported through the cell membrane to establish a resting potential? Na (sodium)
What part of the neuron normally receives stimuli? Dendrite
What is true about membrane potential? Voltage would be measured by placing one electrode inside the membrane and another outside the membrane.
What does the sodium-potassium pump do? pumps 3 sodium ions outside the cell and 2 potassium ions inside.
What is essential for impulse propagation? An action potential
What does the synaptic cleft do? Prevents an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another.
What is a good example of a neuromodulator? Nitric oxide
Which group of fibers spreads impulses at up to 1 meter per second? Group C fibers
The sympathetic and parasympathetic are subdivisions of the? Autonomic nervous system
What do ependymal cells do? Help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid
What are astrocytes? Neuroglia that control the chemical environment around neurons by buffering potassium and recapturing neurotransmitters.
What are schwann cells functionally similar to? oligodendrocytes.
Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open? Potassium
Nerve cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) are crucial for the development of what? Neural connections
What is an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) associated with? Hyperpolarization
What occurs when an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is being generated on the dendritic membrane? A single type of channel will open, permitting simultaneous flow of sodium and potassium.
When a sensory neuron is excited by some form of energy, the resulting graded potential is called a : Generator potential
What is true about graded potentials? They are short lived, can be called postsynaptic potentials and can form on receptor endings.
What is true about the movement of ions across excitable living membranes? Some ions are prevented from moving down their concentration gradients by ATP-driven pumps.
What is serotonin? an indolamine
A 2nd nerve impulse cannot be regenerated until: The membrane potential has been reestablished.
In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment? The interior is negatively charged and contains less sodium.
If a motor neuron in the body were stimulated by an electrode placed about midpoint along the length of the axon what would happen to the impulse? The impulse would spread bidirectionally
What are group C fibers not capable of? Not capable of saltatory conduction
What is true about serial processing? spinal reflexes are an example of serial processing.
Created by: Chanellenae