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US Gov. Exam 4

Exam Review questions for Exam #4

QuestionAnswer
The federal system goes a long way toward explaining why U.S. parties are ____________ than their European counterparts. more decentralized
In most states, candidates for office are chosen by primary elections
In Europe, almost the only way a person can become a candidate is by party leaders
What role do political parties play in the lives of most Americans? most Americans separate political parties from other aspects of their lives.
The Founders saw political parties as factions motivated by ambition and self-interest.
The first organized political party in American history was made up of the followers of Jefferson
The first Republican party, with its base of support in the South, was organized in the 1790s by Thomas Jefferson
Some were so distraught by the election of Thomas Jefferson that they organized to have New England secede from the union
The Federalist Party could not compete effectively in national elections because it had such a limited sectional and class base
In the Jacksonian era, for the first time a party system was built from the bottom up
Prior to 1824, presidential candidates were nominated by caucuses comprising of members of Congress
National party conventions were developed as a reform of party caucuses
The ______________, a faction of the Republican Party, were opposed to the patronage system and feared the influx of immigrants who could be incorporated into the political machine. progressives
Procedures such as the initiative and the referendum arose as efforts to give citizens a direct say in making laws
Scholars have identified___ critical or realigning periods in American politics. 5
The three clearest cases of critical or realigning elections seem to be 1865, 1896, and 1932.
What were major issues in the three clearest cases of critical or realigning periods? slavery and economics
The elections of Ronald Reagan could not have represented a realignment because they left control of congress in the hands of the Democratic party
In recent elections, ticket-splitting has been most common in the south
Ticket-splitting creates divided government
The national convention meets every ______ years to nominate a presidential candidate. four
Between the national conventions party affairs are managed by a ___________ made up of delegates from each state and territory. national committee
In Congress each party has a __________________ that helps members of Congress who are running for reelection or would-be members seeking election. congressional campaign committee
This person manages the day-to-day work of the party. national chairman
Beginning in the 1960s, the ________ became more bureaucratized, while the ___________became more factionalized. republican party, democratic party
The formula for the selection of delegates to the Republican national convention generally stresses the importance of ... loyalty
The term superdelegate refers to elected officials and party leaders who are not required to pledge themselves in advance to a presidential candidate
In 2004, over 40 percent of the delegates to the conventions of both parties were born again christians
What characterizes party machines? a high degree of leadership control over member activity
The________________made it illegal for federal civil service employees to take an active part in political campaigns. Hatch Act of 1939
Unlike political machines, ideological parties tend to be factionalized
Party organizations based on their members' enjoyment of the sociability of politics are referred to as solidary parties
Today, a person wanting to win an election will most often seek the support of a personal following
The most dramatic example of the winner-take-all principle in the U.S. electoral system is the electoral college
No third party is likely to win the presidency anytime soon because they are too narrow and do not appeal to the majority of the people
Americans tend to see Democrats as better at handling issues such as poverty, the environment, and health care
Americans tend to see the Republicans as better at handling such issues as national defense, foreign trade and crime
The most recent independent candidate for president who was able to get on the ballot in every state was Ross Perot
Eugene Debs of the Socialist Party won ____ percent of the vote in the presidential election of 1912 6
George Wallace's American Independent Party was an example of a(n) factional party
National convention delegates, compared to their respective party members, tend to be more “republican” or “democratic” they are more strongly liberal or conservative than the voters themselves
A meeting of party followers at which convention delegates are picked is known as a caucus
A study of political ads broadcast from 1999 to 2004 found that the largest number emphasized voters fears
The text suggests that campaigning has become a synonym for fundraising
The elections that produce the largest voter turnout are the presidential elections
The first goal of an individual planning to run for office is to get mentioned
In 1980, Ronald Reagan chose _________ as a theme for his campaign. competence
Since 1962, over _____ percent of House incumbents who sought reelection won it. 90
When districts are so unequal that the votes of citizens are significantly diluted, they are malapportioned
When districts are drawn in a bizarre or unusual shape to assist candidates, they are gerrymandered
In 1911, Congress decided that the House had become large enough and voted to fix its size at 435
The Constitution calls for reapportionment every 10 years
After the last two census adjustments, which state has benefited the most by gaining the highest number of seats in the House? florida
The increase in voter support that a member of the House receives in his or her first bid for reelection is referred to as the sophomore surge
Most newly elected members of the House can expect an increase of _________ percent more votes when they run for reelection. 8 to 10
Who said, “All politics is local"? Tip O’Neill
One reason that the approach used by a candidate in a general election may not work in a primary is that a primary candidate must play to the ideology of political activists
To win the presidential nomination, as opposed to the general election, candidates generally present themselves as more liberal if democratic, more conservative if republican
Disputed congressional elections are decided by congress
Members of the House and Senate can say or write anything they like, without fear of being sued or prosecuted, so long as what they say is related to the legislative process
A ___________issue is one in which the rival candidates have opposing views on a question that also divides the voters. position
_______issues have increased in importance in campaigns in recent years. valence
The kind of campaign activity most notably on the increase in recent elections is broadcasting
You must declare in advance that you are a registered member of a political party in a ______-primary. closed
The drawback to candidates of television visuals and debates is the risk of verbal slips
One way for a candidate to avoid embarrassing slips of the tongue during campaigning is to rely on stock speeches
An advantage of direct-mail appeals is that they can be directed at specific subgroups
Funding of congressional elections comes from private sources only
Most of the money for congressional candidates comes from individual donation
Soft money is money that is obtained by political parties
History suggests that______percent of the presidential vote will go to the candidates of the two main parties. 80
One advantage that incumbents always have over challengers is their use of free mailing, or franks
Many scholars argue that the foremost factor in determining how people vote is party identification
Democrats could be predicted to win every election if the only factor were party identification
Which party tends to be more loyal to its candidate in presidential elections? republicans
When a voter votes for the candidate whom he or she considers more likely to do a better job in office, the voting is referred to as prospective voting
The text suggests that political junkies are more likely to engage in ________voting. prospective
The text suggests that elections are decided by ______voters. retrospective
The Democrats appear to have lost their once-strong hold on which groups? Catholics, southerners, and union members
The text argues that the U.S. constitutional system was designed to make the adoption of radical departures in policy difficult
Created by: madssss19