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Enlightenment Period

What was the Age of Enlightenment? A European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.
What were the origins of the Enlightenment? Science and Religion
How was science an origin of the Enlightenment? (How it developed/What it developed into?) Scientific laws could be expressed as universal mathematical formulas, and science allowed alternatives to me imagined in everything from politics to religion.
How was religion an origin of the Enlightenment? (How it developed/What it developed into?) A scientific attempt to explain God's actions by reference to his work in nature, not primarily through his Word. People supported 'rational' religion, which was free from "mysteries & miracles. People believed more in deism and pantheism.
What is deism? Belief in the existence of a supreme being based on the light of nature and reason but denying revealed religion. Basically, God is is distant and not involved in the daily life of man.
What is pantheism? The belief that God and nature are one and the same.
How did pantheism start? Gradually, highly educated Protestants & Catholics thought more about God's work as revealed through science and nature, rather than through the Scriptures.
What are the characteristics of the Enlightenment? Rationalism, Secularism, Utilitarianism, Humanism, Tolerance, Freedom, and Liberty.
What is rationalism? Reason is the arbiter of all things.
What is secularism? Applying scientific method to religion and philosophy.
What is utilitarianism? the greatest good for the greatest number.
What is humanism? the belief that man is intrinsically good. The optimistic belief in social progress.
What is tolerance? No opinion is worth burning your neighbor for.
What is freedom? the right to think, say, and express what ever you want.
Who was liberty given to in the enlightenment? It was given to all men (the battle against absolutism).
In what way was the Enlightenment popularized? Through in increase in reading in men and women, but books were expensive and there was only 20 readers to one book.
What did Thomas Hobbes believe about the nature of people? In nature, people were cruel, greedy and selfish. They would fight, rob, and oppress one another.
What did Thomas Hobbes believe would help people to escape from their nature? To escape the nature of people, people would enter into a social contract. They would give up their freedom in return for the safety and order of an organized society.
What type of government did Thomas Hobbes believe in? A powerful government like an absolute monarchy was best for society. It would impose order and compel obedience. It would also be able to suppress rebellion.
What was Thomas Hobbes most famous work? the Leviathan
What did John Locke write? Letter on toleration, Two treatises of Government, Some Thoughts Concerning Education, The Reasonableness of Christianity
What does John Locke believe about human nature? He believes at birth, the mind is a "tabula rasa", blank tablet. Everything we know comes from the experience of the senses (empiricism)
What does John Locke say about rights? We are all born with rights, because they are a part of nature, of our very existence - they come from God.
What did John Locke believe about an individual? he believed that the individual must become a "rational creature." to be successful and a good person.
What did John Locke believe about virtue? Virtue can be learned and practiced.
what did John Locke believe about humans possessing free will? Humans do possess free will; they should be prepared for freedom, and Obedience should be out of conviction, not out of fear.
What did John Locke believe about the government? The government owes their power to a contract with the people. Neither kings nor wealth are divinely ordained. A republic is the best form of government. (see next slide)
What did John Locke believe about the government? (cont.) Governments have a responsibility to protect the natural right of the people they govern. If they fail, the people have the right to overthrow them. The best government is one which is accepted by all of the people and which has limited power.
Who did John Locke influence? Locke's ideas influence Thomas Jefferson when Jefferson wrote the US Declaration of Independence in 1776. He also influence later revolutions in France (1789) and in many other places in the world in the 19th Century.
What did Jean Jacques Rousseau write? A Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, Emile, and the Social Contract.
What did Rousseau believe about civilizations? As civilizations progress, they move away from morality.
What did Rousseau believe about science and the arts? He believed that the revival of science and the arts corrupted social morals.
What did Rousseau question? Rousseau mainly questioned the authority of the absolute monarchy and religion. He hated political and economic oppression.
What did Rousseau believe about the government? The government must preserve "virtue" and "liberty"
What were some key points that Rousseau wrote in the Social Contract? The right kind of political order can make people moral and free. Individual moral freedom could be achieved only by learning to subject one's individual interests to the "General Will." (see next slide)
What were some key points that Rousseau wrote in the Social Contract? (cont.) Individuals do this by entering into a social contract not with their rulers, but with each other. This social contract was derived from human nature, not from history, tradition, or the Bible.
What should the general will do, based on Rousseau's Social Contract? the general will of the people should direct the state toward the common good. Hence, the good of the community is more important than individual interests.
What did Rousseau believe about the best form of government? People would be most free and moral under a republican form of government with direct democracy. However, the individual could be "forced to be free" by the terms of the social contract. (He provided no legal protection for individual rights.)
Who did Rousseau influence? He had a great influence on the French revolutionaries of 1789. And his attacks on private property inspired the communists of the 19th century such as Karl Marx.
What did Baron de Montesquieu write? Persian Letters (ridiculed the absolute monarchy and social classes in France) and On the Spirit of Laws
What did Montesquieu criticize? He criticized absolute monarchy and was a voice for democracy.
What did Montesquieu believe about Separation of Powers? He believed that the best way to protect liberty was to divide the powers of government into three branches: legislative; executive; and judicial.
What did Montesquieu believe about Checks and Balances? He believed that each branch of government should check (limit) the power of the other two branches. Thus, power would be balanced and no one branch would be too powerful.
What did Montesquieu's "separation of powers' and 'checks and balances' influence? Montesquieu's 'separation of powers' and 'checks and balances' greatly influences James Madison and the other framers of the US Constitution.
What did Voltaire write? Essay on the Customs and Spirit of Nations, Candide, and the Philosophical Dictionary.
What did Voltaire advocate? He advocated freedom of thought, speech, politics, and religion.
What did Voltaire fight against? He fought against intolerance, injustice, inequality, ignorance, and superstition.
Who did Voltaire attack? He attacked idle aristocrats, corrupt government officials, religious prejudices,and the slave trade.
What did Mary Wollstonecraft believe in about women's freedom? She argued women had not been included in the Enlightenment slogan "free and equal." Women had been excluded from the social contract.
What did Mary Wollstonecraft write? A Vindication of the Rights of Women
What did Mary Wollstonecraft believe in about women's rights? Wollstonecraft believed in equal education for girls and boys. Only education could give women the knowledge to participate equally with men in public life.
Who was Adam Smith and what did he do/believe in? He was a Scottish economist called the "father of capitalism." He was an advocate of laissez faire (French for let do, let go, let pass, hands off
What was Laissez faires? A theory of the 'natural' laws of economics: business should operate with little or no government interference.
What did Adam Smith write? He wrote The Wealth of the Nations, arguing the free market of supply and demand should drive economies. The hidden hand of competition was the only regulation an economy needed.
What did Adam Smith believe about supply and demand? He believed that wherever there was demand for goods or services, supplies would compete with each other to meet that demand in order to make profit.
What did Adam smith believe about the government? Smith believed that the government had a duty to protect society and to provide justice and public works.
Created by: kaylee72sommers