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A&P II Cardio Blood

Ch. 11 Blood

The pH of blood is slightly alkaline
What plasma proteins are important in maintaining the osmotic pressure of plasma? Albumins
Plasma cells of the lymphoid system produce immunoglobulins
The fluid left after the clotting proteins are removed is known as Serum
Which plasma components are used for ATP production, growth, and cellular maintenance? Organic Nutrients
A microliter of whole blood contains about how many red blood cells?(RBC) 5 Million
primary sites of hemopoiesis from the second to the fifth month of development? (RBC) Liver and spleen
Reticulocytes complete maturation & become indistinguishable from other mature RBCs about ________ after entering the circulation. 24 hours
A single hemoglobin molecule can carry up to ________ molecule(s) of oxygen gas (O2). (RBC) 4
Erythropoiesis occurs in myeloid tissue, which is found in all the following bones except the Skull and Clavicles
Erythropoiesis occurs in myeloid tissue, which is found in all the following bones scapulae and ribs.vertebrae and sternum. pelvis and proximal limb bones
________ are substances, often proteins, that can trigger an immune response. (Blood types) Antigens
The normal immune system ignores surface antigens on self RBCs, which are also called Agglutinogens
"universal recipients" because they lack anti-A or anti-B antibodies? Type AB
"Universal Donor" Type 0
What leukocytes are granulocytes?(WBC) Neutrophils
What leukocytes are involved in the body's specific defenses? Lymphocytes (most abundant WBC)
Individual platelets circulate for how long before being removed by phagocytes? 9 to 12 days
Plasma proteins known as clotting factors are converted to active enzymes by? inactive proenzymes
pathways is slower and reinforces the initial blood clot, making it larger and more effective (stable)? Intrinsic pathway
makes it easier for fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells to make necessary repairs in damaged vessels? Clot retraction
How long after an injury occurs do platelets begin to attach to sticky endothelial surfaces and exposed collagen fibers? With in 15 seconds
Regarding leukocyte formation, which of the following cells are the immediate precursors to each of the mature granulocytes? Band Cells
Cardiovascular System Provides a system for rapid transport within the body
Cardiovascular System pump (the heart) conducting system (blood vessels) fluid medium (blood):
Blood functions include Transport of dissolved substances Regulation of pH and ions Restriction of fluid losses at injury sites Defense against toxins and pathogens Stabilization of body temperature
Plasma or Liquid Component
Formed elements (cellular components) are RBC, WBC , and Platelets
Blood 3 general Characteristics 38*C (100.4*F) , High Viscosity, Slightly Alkaline pH (7.35-7.45)
Plasma makes up 55% Whole Blood
Plasma proteins three classes Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogen
Extracellular fluids are Interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma
Plasma Albumins (60%) Transport: fatty acids, thyroid hormones, and steroid hormones
Plasma Globulins (35%) Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins; transport Globulins
Clotting Factors (4%) Molecules that form clots and produce long, insoluble strands of fibrin
Plasma Proteins are Enzymes
Origins of Plasma Proteins Liver
Plasma resembles interstitial fluid but unique mixture of proteins not found in other extracellular fluids.
half the volume of whole blood consists of cells and cell products (the formed elements)
Hemopoiesis cellular pathways by which the formed elements are produced.
Stem cells Cells that divide and mature to produce all three classes of formed elements.
Erythrocytes or RBCs Make up about 45% of whole blood volume
Erythrocytes or RBCs make up what % formed Element 99.9%
The red pigment that gives whole blood its color Hemoglobin
Binds and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide Hemoglobin
the number of RBCs in 1 microliter of whole blood Red blood cell count
Hematocrit is packed cell volume, PCV
percentage of RBCs in centrifuged whole blood Hematocrit
RBC are Biconcave discs they? Bend and flex entering small capillaries (RBC)
RBCs transports O2 and CO2
RBC Lack nuclei, mitochondria, and ribosomes
Live about 120 days RBC
Protein molecule that carries respiratory gases; 95% of RBC protein are Hemoglobin (Hgb)
Hemoglobin Structure is Complex quaternary structure (Four globular protein subunits)
Hemoglobin Four globular protein subunits Each one molecule of heme and Each heme contains one iron atom (Fe)
Iron atoms Associate easily with oxygen (oxyhemoglobin)
Iron atoms Dissociate easily from oxygen (deoxyhemoglobin)
Macrophages from the? liver, spleen, and bone marrow & Engulf RBCs before membranes rupture (hemolyze)
Hemoglobin Recycling is Phagocytes break hemoglobin , Hemoglobinuria,Hematuria
Phagocytes break hemoglobin into what components Globular proteins to amino acids. Heme to biliverdin and bilirubin. Iron
Hemoglobinuria Hemoglobin breakdown products in urine
Hematuria Whole red blood cells in urine due to kidney or tissue damage
RBC Production Erythropoiesis: Occurs only in myeloid tissue (red bone marrow) in adults &Stem cells mature to RBC ;
Hemocytoblasts in Stem cells in myeloid tissue divide to produce: Myeloid stem cells: become RBCs, some WBCs Lymphoid stem cells: become lymphocytes
Regulation of Erythropoiesis (RBC) requires: Amino acids, Iron, Vitamins B12, B6, and folic acid (B4)
Erythropoietin (EPO) or erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone
Erythropoietin (EPO) secreted oxygen in peripheral tissues is low (hypoxia) Due to disease or high altitude
Blood Type : Antigens are called A, B, and Rh (or D)
Blood Type: Antibodies in plasma react with foreign antigens on RBCs RBCs clump and break open
Blood Type Determined by presence or absence of antigens on surface of RBC
Blood types A, B , AB , O
Blood antigens for A A(antibody B)
Blood Antigen for B B (antibody A)
Blood Antigen for AB AB (antibody None)
Blood Antigen for O O (antibody A&B)
Either Rh positive (Rh+) or Rh negative (Rh-) is Rh Factor Also called D antigen
White Blood Cells (WBCs) or Leukocytes Defend the body against Pathogens. Toxins. Abnormal cells. Damaged cells
Most WBCs or leukocytes in Connective tissue proper
WBC or Leukocytes Perform diapedesis Push between endothelial cells to enter tissues
WBC or leukocytes Exhibit chemotaxis Attracted by chemicals released by bacteria or injured cells
WBC Consist of two groups: Granulocytes (cytoplasmic granules), Agranulocytes (no granules)
(WBC) Three Types of Granulocytes Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
(WBC Granulocytes) Neutrophils are 50-70% of circulating WBCs (Phagocytic)
(WBC) Two Types of Agranulocytes Lymphocytes & Monocytes
(WBC Agranulocytes) lymphocytes are about 20-30% of circulating WBCs. lymphatic system,Provide specific defenses: Attack foreign cells, Produce antibodies Destroy abnormal (cancer) cells
(WBC Agranulocytes) Monocytes Migrate into tissues become macrophages Engulf large particles and pathogens. Secrete substances that attract immune system cells and fibrocytes to injured area
Formed Element Platelets Released from megakaryocytes in bone marrow into the blood
Formed Element Platelets are Cell fragments involved in cessation of blood loss & Essential for hemostasis
Hemostasis cessation of bleeding in three phases are Vascular, Platelet, Coagulation
Hemostasis Vascular phase is Contraction of injured vessel (cut)
hemostasis Platelet phase is Platelets stick to damaged wall and each other
hemostasis Coagulation phase is Clotting factors in plasma form blood clot (thrombus) Starts 30 sec. or more after cut
hemostasis Coagulation pathways are Extrinsic pathway (tissue Factor) & Intrinsic pathway (platelet Factor , Slow)
hemostasis Ex. & In. pathways lead to common pathway (factor x) Thrombin converts fibrinogen to an insoluble fibrin
Hemostasis Fibrinolysis Slow process of dissolving clot : Thrombin and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA): Convert plasminogen to plasmin: Digests fibrin strands
(WBCGranulocytes ) Eosinophils are 2-4% of circulating WBCs, Phagocytic, Parasites and allergies
( WBC Granulocytes ) Basophils are < 1% of circulating WBCs, Release histamine and heparin
Production of WBCs in Bone Marrow Myeloid stem cells produce? Granulocytes (three types) & Monocytes (future macrophages)
Production of WBCs in Bone Marrow Lymphoid stem cells Produce? lymphocytes & Process called, lymphopoiesis Lymphocytes enter blood &Migrate to lymphoid tissues
Regulation of WBC Maturation Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are? Hormones which regulate certain WBC populations Four CSFs. CSFs target stem cells. Several CSFs used with cancer patients with bone marrow suppression
Formed Elements Platelet counts Thrombocytopenia: Abnormally low platelet count Thrombocytosis: Abnormally high platelet count
Created by: Laurzes



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