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Temperature of blood (Celcius) 38 degrees
pH range of blood 7.35-7.45
Three Major Plasma Proteins Albumins Globulins Fibrinogen
Albumins Most abundant plasma protein, produced by liver, maintains osmotic pressure
Globulins Plasma protein produced by lymphocytes, act as transport proteins and antibodies
Fibrogen Plasma protein, functions in coagulation, converts to fibrin
Serum Plasma without clotting factors
____ of plasma proteins are synthesized by the ______. 90%, liver
Plasma makes up __% of whole blood, while formed elements make up __% of whole blood volume 55, 45
Plasma ratio: Water: __% Plasma Proteins: __% Other solutes: __% 92, 7, 1,
Red blood cells make up __% of formed elements. 99.9
Hematocrit Ratio of RBC to whole blood
Hemoglobin: O2 binds to ______, while CO2 binds to _____. heme, globular subunits
Lifespan of red blood cells 120 days
Hemolysis Rupture or destruction of red blood cells
What organ filters Hemoglobin? Kidney
Where are most red blood cells phagocytized? Liver, spleen, and bone marrow
Steps of Hemoglobin Recycling 1. Globular proteins are broken down into amino acids 2. Heme is stripped of iron, converted to biliverdin 3.Iron can be stored or released into blood to bind with transferrin
Erythropoiesis Red blood cell formation
Where does erythropoiesis occur? Red bone marrow or myeloid tissue
Hemocytoblasts produce _________. Myeloid stem cells
Agglutinogen Antibodies/immunoglobins
Differential Test Ratio of various leukocytes to determine what type of infection may be present in the body
Clotting Factors Molecules that form clots and produce long, insoluble strands of fibrin
What is required for eurythropoiesis? Amino Acids, Iron, Vitamins (act as co-factors)
Afflutinin Another term for antigen
Erythropoietin EPO hormone secreted to stimulate red blood cell production when oxygen is low in peripheral tissues
Antigen CELL surface marker
Antibody Defense protein, stick to FOREIGN antigens (found in plasma)
Interstitial fluid Fluid in space between cells. LOW in protein
Erythrocytes Red blood cells, contain hemoglobin, lack nucleus (anucleate)
PRIMARY location of Leukocytes Connective tissue other than blood
Diapedesis Ability to move out of the blood stream (ex: property of leukocytes)
Granulocyte Classification of leukocyte, has bizarre nucleus and granular cytoplasm
Agranulocyte Classification of leukocyte, has round nucleus and no granules in cytoplasm
Neutrophils Granulocytes, fight bacteria, stain pink, most common WBC variety (60%)
Lymphocytes Agranulocytes, fight viruses, second most common WBC variety (30%)
Eosinophils Granulocytes, stain red
Basophils Granulocytes, stain dark blue/purple
Monocytes Agranulocytes, known as macrophage outside of the blood
Thrombocytes Platelets, cell fragments
Hemostasis Stopping bleeding
Fibrinogen Soluble, converts to fibrin through thrombosis
Fibrin Insoluble, final product of thrombosis
Thrombin Converts fibrogen to fibrin
Extrinsic pathway Tissue factor
Intrinsic pathway Platelet factor
Fibrinolysis Slow process of dissolving blood clot
Plasmin Digests fiber strands in blood clot
3 stages of hemostasis 1. Vascular phase 2. Platelet phase 3. Coagulation phase
Vascular Phase Constriction of blood vessels
Platelet Phase Platelet plug formation (within seconds)
Coagulation Phase Formation of thrombus
Created by: kcopeland10