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Chapter 6 Muscles


Contractility Shorten with force
Excitability Respond to a stimulus
Extensibility Stretched
Epimysium surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
Fascia located inside the epimysium. separates muscles
Perimysium a connective tissue sheet around the muscle fasciculi.
Fibers Fasciculi composed of single muscle cells. A single cylindrical cell
Endomysium fiber surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
Myofibrils threadlike structures
actin myofilaments thin;twisted pearls
myosin myofilaments thick;minute golf clubs
sarcomeres joined end to end to form myofibril structural & functional unity of the muscle.
resting membrane potential outside - positively charged inside - negatively charged The change difference across the membrane
actin potential stimulated the membrane characteristics change briefly. The brief reversal back of the change
Motor neurons nerve cells
Neuromusclular junction
Synapse near the center of the cell
Motor unit many motor units form a single muscle
Presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal muscle fibers
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter
acetylcholine diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the postsynaptic terminal causing a change in the postsynaptic cell
sliding filament mechanism muscle contraction
muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimules
threshold point the muscle fiber will contract maximally
all-or-none response phenomenon
lag phase time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
contraction phase time of contraction
relaxation phase time during which the muscle relaxes
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment increase in number of motor units being activated
creatine phosphate when at rest can't stockpile ATP but can restore an high energy molecule
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen (more efficient)
oxygen debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
muscle fatigue when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
isometric equal distance
isotonic equal tension
muscle tone constant tension
fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
origin (head) most stationary end of the muscle
insertion end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
prime mover a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement
Erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back
thoracic muscles muscles that move the thorax
external intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing
dome shaped muscles. aids in breathing
linea alba consists of white connective tissue rather than muscle
rectus abdominis on each side of the linea alba
tendinous inscriptions
trapezius rotates scapula
serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles the arm is attached to the thorax
pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. "swimmer muscles"
deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb
triceps brachii extends the forearm.
biceps brachii flexes the forearm
brachialis flexes forearm
brachioradialis flexes and supinates the forearm
retinaculum (bracelet) strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist so they don't "bowstring" during muscle contraction
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
extensor digitorum extends the fingers
intrinsic hand muscles 19 hand muscles located within the hand
interossi located between the metacarpals, are responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers
gluteus maximus buttocks
gluteus medius hip muscle and common injection site
quadriceps femoris extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles
sartorius "tailors muscles"; flexes the thigh
hamstring muscles posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh
gastrocnemius and soleus form the calf muscle
calcaneal tendon calf muscles helps join to form
(Achilles tendons) flex the foot and toes
peroneus lateral muscles of the leg. primarily everters (turning the lateral side of the foot outward) also aid in plantar flexion
intrinsic foot 20 muscles located within the foot. muscles flex extend, abduct, and adduct the toes
Created by: AutumNicholas



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