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2015AICPHistTheyLaw

History, Theory and 1st of Planning Profession

TermDefinition
In 1909 in Washington, D.C. the first national planning conference was held at the National Conference on City Planning and Congestion Relief
In 1912, Walter Moody published Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago This is the first known formal instruction in city planning below the college level was produced: Adopted as an eighth-grade textbook by the Chicago Board of Education.
In 1914, Flavel Shurtleff wrote Carrying Out the City Plan, the first major textbook on city planning.
In 1917, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., was ACIP's first president. the American City Planning Institute of Planners (ACIP) was founded.
In 1925 the American City Planning Institute and the National Conference on City Planning published the first issue of City Planning, the predecessor to the current Journal of the American Planning Association
In 1934 the American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO) was founded.
In 1971 AIP adopted a Code of Ethics for professional planners.
In 1977 the first exam for AIP membership was administered.
In 1978 the American Planning Association was created through a merger of AIP and ASPO.
In 1981 the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning published the first issue of The Journal of Planning Education and Research.
In 1909 the first city planning course was taught in Harvard's Landscape Architecture Department.
In 1939 the American City Planning Institute of Planners (ACIP) was renamed to American Institute of Planners (AIP) The AIP was the forerunner of the American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP).
In 1867, San Francisco the first land use zoning restrictions on the location of obnoxious uses passed
In 1903, Cleveland the first local civic center plan created in the U.S. Daniel Burnham, John Carrere, and Arnold Brunner were responsible for the plan's development.
In 1906, San Francisco was the first major American city to apply the City Beautiful principles, using a plan developed by Daniel Burnham.
In 1907, the first town planning board was created in Hartford, Connecticut.
In 1909, Daniel Burnham the first metropolitan regional plan for Chicago created.
In 1914, Newark, New Jersey the first full-time employee for a city planning commission, Harland Bartholomew, hired. Bartholomew went on to become one of the most famous planning consultants.
In 1916, New York City adopted the first comprehensive zoning code, written by Edward Bassett.
In 1922, Los Angeles County the first regional planning commission formed
In 1924, Secretary Herbert Hoover of the U.S. Department of Commerce the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act issued
In 1925, City of Cincinnati the first major U.S. city to adopt a comprehensive plan, produced by Alfred Bettman and Ladislas Segoe.
In 1928, the U.S. Department of Commerce, under Secretary Herbert Hoover the Standard City Planning Enabling Act produced
In 1933, the first U.S. National Planning Board was created. It was later renamed the National Resources Planning Board and then abolished in 1943.
In 1934, in Cleveland/ in Atlanta. the first federally supported public housing was constructed; the first public housing to be occupied
In 1961, Hawaii the first state to introduce statewide zoning, which was later amended in 1978.
1909, Wisconsin the first state to pass enabling legislation
1909 the first city to use land use zoning to guide development.
How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis, 1890 This book resulted in housing reform in New York City.
Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform by Ebenezer Howard, 1898. This book initiated the Garden City movement.
Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago by Walter Moody, in 1912. This book was adopted as a textbook for eighth graders in Chicago.
Carrying Out the City Plan by Flavel Shurtleff, 1914. This book was the first major textbook on city planning.
Cities in Evolution by Patrick Geddess, 1915 This book centers on regional planning
Planning of the Modern City by Nelson Lewis, 1916 published in 1916.
Local Planning Administration by Ladislas Segoe, 1941 This book was the first in the Green Book Series produced by the International City/County Management Association.
Urban Land Use Planning by F. Stuart Chapin, 1957 This book became a common textbook on land use planning.
Image of the City by Kevin Lynch, 1960 This book defines basic concepts within the city
The Death and Life of Great American Cities by Jane Jacobs, 1961 Jacobs provided a critical look at planners and planning
The Rise of the Creative Class by Richard Florida, 2003 focuses on the importance of creative professionals in the overall economic growth and health of urban areas.
Silent Spring by Rachel Carlson, 1962 This book focuses on the negative effects of pesticides on the environment. Read excerpts of Silent Spring on Amazon.com.
The Urban General Plan by TJ Kent, 1964
With Heritage So Rich edited by Alfred Reins, 1966 This is a seminal book in historic preservation.
Design with Nature by Ian McHarg, 1969 This book focuses on conservation design.
The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces by William Whyte, 1980 This book promotes the use of environmental psychology and sociology in urban design.
Charles Abrams, 1934, 1965 1934 created the New York Housing Authority. In 1965 he published The City is the Frontier, a book that provided harsh criticism to the U.S. federal policies surrounding slum clearance, urban renewal, and public housing.
Thomas Adams, 1903 Secretary of the Garden City Association and became the first manager of Letchworth. He developed a number of garden suburbs in England and later went on to teach planning at MIT and Harvard.
Saul Alinsky, 1930s and 1940s, 1946 Advocacy planning: provided 13 rules for community in his book Rules for Radicals, . Alinsky organized Chicago's poor. He published Reveille for Radicals, which encouraged those who were poor to become involved in American democracy.
Sherry Arnstein 1969 wrote "A Ladder of Citizen Participation” for the Journal of the American Planning Association in 1969. This article describes the levels of involvement by citizens depending on the form of participation utilized.
Robert Moses, 1930s and 1950s transformed New York City's public works. He expanded the state's park system and built numerous parkways. He also built parks, playgrounds, highways, bridges, tunnels, and public housing.
Rexford Tugwell, 1935 served as the head of the Resettlement Administration. He worked on the greenbelt cities program, which sought construction of new, self -sufficient cities. Built 3 cities: Greendale, Wisconsin; Greenhills, Ohio; and Greenbelt, Maryland
Sir Raymond Unwin, 1907 was an English town planner and designer of Letchworth. He later lectured at the University of Birmingham in England and Columbia University.
Catherine Bauer Wurster 1937, 1969 was a founder of American housing policy. She wrote Modern Housing and was influential in the passage of the Housing Act of 1937.
Clarence Perry, 1920s developed the neighborhood unit concept which can be seen in Rayburn, New Jersey. He was a key contributor to the Regional Survey of New York and its Environs.
John Nolen, 1903, 1923 designed Mariemont, Ohio and was a leading planner and landscape architect. He made substantial contributions including creating the first comprehensive plan in Florida, contributing to the park system in Madison, Wisconsin and designing Venice, Florida.
Frederick Law Olmstead, Sr. 1858, 1868, 1898, 1902 The father of landscape architecture. Designed Central and Prospect Parks in New York City, Niagra Reservation, and university campus landscapes. He was part of the design team for Riverside in 1868. Wrote Garden Cities, garden city movement
Paolo Soleri was an architect responsible for designing Arcosanti an experimental utopian city in Arizona focused on minimizing the impact of development on the natural environment.
City Beautiful Movement late 1800s - early 1900s U.S. cities were becoming places that had severe poverty, crime, and blight. Daniel Burnham. Creating a beautiful city would inspire residents to lead virtuous lives; Beaux-Arts style civic centers in down. Ex. McMillan Plan of 1901 for Washington D.C.
Daniel Burnham, 1893, 1909 The first model civic center was the White City in Chicago for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. first regional plan in Chicago. His most famous quote is "Make no little plans. They have no fire to stir men's blood."
Garden City Movement Began with Ebenezer Howard's 1902 as Garden Cities of To-morrow. Self contained city owned by a corp, 6,000 ac and ~30,000 people on 1,000 ac. Surrounded by farming areas. Bring economic/ social reform. Lacked industry, city centers and became suburbs.
Letchworth Constructed, 1903 This was the first English city of its kind. influential to the New Town Movement in the United States. not self-contained. became residential suburbs.
Sunnyside Gardens, NY, 1922 Constructed A total of 77 acres in Queens was purchased and was planned to have 1,202 housing units.
1st American Garden City Constructed, 1928 Radburn, New Jersey began. It was designed by Clarence Stein and Henry Wright.
New Town Movement Began, 1935 Resettlement Administration began movement in the New Towns Program under FDR. Headed by Rexford Tugwell. 3 cities bult: Greendale, Wisconsin; Greenhills, Ohio; and Greenbelt, Maryland
The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for the rectangular land survey of the Old Northwest. The survey was completed following the end of the Revolutionary War and provided a systematic way to divide and distribute land to the public.
1862 Congress passed the Homestead Act, provided 160 acres of land to settlers for a fee of $18 and a guarantee of five years of residence
1891 the General Land Law Revision Act was passed by Congress. This Act provided the President of the United States with the power to create forest preserves by proclamation.
1897 Congress passed the Forest Management Act which allowed the Secretary of the Interior to manage forest preserves.
1902 the U.S. Reclamation Act was passed. It allowed the funds raised from the sale of public land in arid states to be used to construct water storage and irrigation systems.
1903 President Theodore Roosevelt appointed a Public Lands Commission to propose rules for land development and management.
1906 the Antiquities Act was the first law to provide federal protection for archaeological sites. The Act allowed for the designation of National Monuments.
1935 the Resettlement Administration was formed to carry out experiments in population resettlement and land reform. The result was the development of Greenbelt towns.
1944 the Serviceman's Readjustment Act
1st comprehensive plan, 1925 Developed in Cincinnati by Alfred Bettman and Ladislas Segoe.
Comp Plan Introduction into state planning, 1970 and 1985 1970 - Oregon and Minnesota requires comp planning 1985 - Florida required developing comp plans.
1st state to tie Smart Growth legislation to state-level capital investment, 1997 Maryland
Concentric Planning, 1925 Ernest Burgess. Sociologist, Chicago. Cities grow in a series of outward rings. Land use based on the distance from downtown. Five rings: CBD (gov, office and comm), Industrial, Transition, High Income/ Large Houses, Independent, High Class residential
Sector Theory , 1939 Homer Hoyt. Realtor in Chicago. Hoyt disagreed with Burgess' conception of city growth. He argued that land uses vary based on transportation routes. The city, as a result, was a series of sectors radiating out from the center of the city.
Multi Nuclei Theory, 1945 Ulman and Harris. cities develop a series of specific land use nuclei. A land use nucleus is formed because of accessibility to natural resources, clustering of similar uses, land prices, and the repelling power of land uses
Central Place Theory, 1933 Walter Christaller. size and spacing of cities. The theory states that there is a minimum market threshold to bring a firm to a city and there is a maximum range of people who are willing to travel to receive goods and services.
Rational Planning, 1950s Simon. Assumes planner has perfect knowledge of all the factors in a situation. Evaluate all alternatives, not constrained by limits of time or money. Leads to "satisfice"- good enough plans. Does not include public and cannot solve complicated problems
Incremental Planning, 1959 Charles Lindbloom "Science of Muddling Through." People make their plans and decisions in an incremental manner. He argues that people accomplish goals through a series of successive, limited comparisons. Ex Comp Plan updates so zoning "tweaked"
Mixed Scanning, 1967 Amitai Etzioni, Compromise between the rational and incremental planning theories. Mixed scanning views planning decisions at two levels: the big picture and the small picture. ex Comp plans rational, CIP incremental
Advocacy Planning, 1960s Paul Davidoff. planners should represent special interest groups rather than acting for the good of the whole community. Produce several plans for several groups by using rational and incremental planning. Problem: which one gets funded
Equity Planning, 1970 Norman Krumholz. Planners should work to redistribute power, resources, or participation away from the elite and toward the poor and working-class residents of the community. Make the needs of its low-income groups the highest priority
Transactive Planning, 1973 John Friedmann "Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning" Planner still serves as the technical expert that determines the alternatives through a process of "mutual learning." Can be biased feedback from community
Radical Planning, 1987 John Friedmann. Radical planning takes the power away from the government and gives it to the people. In this process, citizens get together and develop their own plans. Takes power away from gvmt. Problem: gvmt not set up this way
Communicative Planning, Current Planning operates within the realm of politics, and that it contains a variety of stakeholder interests. Uses a rational model as a basis for mutual understanding among all. Planners can provide information and bring people together to discuss the issues.
Created by: cristinrae21