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Information Systems, Budgets, EIS, Project Management

E-Governance use of information communication technology (ICT) to exchange information and services with citizens, businesses, and other government agencies. Ex on-line GIS systems, discussion forums, and e-commerce.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) field of computerized mapping.
Attributes the information about an object or feature - taking a census tract as an example the attribute data would include the tract number, population, number of households etc.
Topographic map two-dimensional representation of a portion of the three-dimensional surface of the earth
TIGER Topographically Integrated Geographical Encoding and Referencing map, which is used for Census data. A TIGER map includes streets, railroads, zip codes, and landmarks. TIGER maps are used by the U.S. Census Bureau
Digital Aerial Photography Uses radio waves to create an image.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) digital data about the elevation of the earth's surface as it varies across communities allows planners to analyze and map it. DEMs can be used for storm water management, flood control, land use decisions, and other purposes
Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) new technology using a laser, instead of radio waves, that is mounted in an airplane to provide detailed topographic information
UrbanSim simulation software program that models planning and urban development.
CommunityViz software program that allows agencies to create 3D images. This allows citizens to visualize the potential for development and redevelopment.
Fiscal Impact Analysis AKA cost-revenue analysis. Used to estimate the costs and revenues of a proposed development on a local government. The most common form of fiscal impact analysis is the development project.
Average Per Capita Method The simplest method, but the least reliable. It divides the total local budget by the existing population in a city to determine the average per-capita cost. Result multiplied by the expected new new development population. Can be adjusted for jobs.
Adjusted Per Capita Method uses the Average Per Capita Method but adjusts based on expectations about the new development. Subjective
Disaggregated Per Capita Method estimates the costs and revenues based on major land uses; for example, the cost of servicing a shopping center versus an apartment complex
Dynamic Method Applies statistical analysis to time-series data. Determines how much sales tax revenue is generated per capita from a grocery store and applies this to new development. This method requires more data and time to conduct than other methods
budget the allocation and expenditure of funds to provide service to the public. A budget serves to set spending priorities. Two types
operating budget everyday expenditures of an organization, such as supplies, personnel, and maintenance of office space.
capital budget Includes long-term purchases, such as a new building, recreation center, water main, or major equipment. A capital budget is a one-year budget for capital expenditures, while a Capital Improvements Program (CIP) is a 5-10 year commitment.
Line-item Budgeting emphasis on projecting the budget for the next year with inflationary costs. Advantage: does not require evaluation of existing services, easy to prepare and justify. Dis: lack of flexibility and relationship btw budget requests and obj of organization
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS) focused on planning through goals set by a dept. Adv: helps departs place their programs in perspective, evaluate efforts and accomplishments. Dis: time consuming to prepare and goals and objectives must be stated in measurable terms. Limited Success
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) Start with $0 and justify. Emphasizes planning and fosters understanding within all units of an organization. Adv: consider every aspect of operation. Dis: Must justify every penny. Limited Success
Performance-based budget Focused on linking funding to performance measures. Meeting performance goals results in funding increases. Adv: Helps Depts evaluate performance standards; Dis: Time consuming to prepare and requires goals and obj to be stated in measurable terms
Pay-As-You-Go uses current funds to pay for capital improvement projects;
Reserve Funds have been saved for the purchase of future capital improvements
General Obligation Bonds voter-approved bonds for capital improvements. GO Bonds use the tax revenue of the government to pay back the debt
Revenue Bonds use a fixed source of revenue to pay back the debt. Commonly used to finance utility improvements and special facilities, such as baseball stadiums by revenues paying back on bond fees.
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) The designated area receives targeted investment, such as infrastructure improvements to enable redevelopment and reinvestment in the area. The increase in value of property results in increased tax revenue to be spent only in the identified area.
Special Assessments allows a particular group of people to assess the cost of a public improvement and decide if they want to pay addition for an upgrade. Ex. Traffic poles standard galvanized; can be additional for black powder coated in an area
Lease-purchase allows a government to "rent-to-own.” The benefit is that the government does not have to borrow money to finance the acquisition of a major capital improvements
Grants allow for all or a portion of the cost of a public facility to be paid for by someone other than the local government. Typically require a match from the local government
Progressive tax tax rate increases as income rises. For example, the federal income tax system taxes those with high incomes a higher tax rate than those with low incomes
Proportional tax The tax rate is the same regardless of income. For example, a property tax rate is the same regardless of the price of your home.
Regressive tax tax rate decreases as income rises. ex. Sin taxes
Cost-benefit analysis Became common as a result of the Federal Navigation Act of 1936. Jules Dupuit 1848. Estimates the total monetary value of the benefits and costs of a project(s). Typically, this is used for public projects such as highways and other public facilities.
Cost-effectiveness analysis method for selecting among competing projects when resources are limited, was developed by the military. ex. spent $50 on park improvements or extra playground equipment and a lawn mower
Net Present Value shows the net monetary value of a project, discounted to today's present value. Takes factors such as construction costs, interest rates, availability of funding into account
Goals Achievement Matrix project evaluation matrix that includes competing projects in rows and the evaluation criterion columns.
Goals Achievement Matrix (GAM) comprehensive way to evaluate a project. A chart that shows the anticipated attainment of a project's goals and the assignment of accomplishing a goal to a group
Gantt Chart Developed in 1917 by Charles Gantt. This chart focuses on the sequence of tasks necessary for project completion. Each task is represented as a single horizontal bar on an X-Y chart
Linear programming a project management method that attempts to find the optimum design solution for a project.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) US Navy created in 1950s. Scheduling method that graphically illustrates the interrelationships of project tasks. PERT is a good choice when precise time estimates are not available
Critical Path Method (CPM) tool to analyze a project. The analysis results in a "critical path” through the project tasks. Each project task has a known amount of time to complete and cannot be completed before the previous one is completed.
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) Resulted in the creation of the Council on Environmental Quality. The Act requires that the environmental impacts of a project be considered
Environmental Assessment required to determine whether the preparation of an EIS is necessary.
Environmental Impact Statement Sections 1. Purpose and Need of the Proposed Action; 2. Description of the Affected Environment; 3. Range of Alternatives to the proposed action. 4. Analysis of the environmental impacts of each of the possible alternatives
Environmental Impact Statement Topics 1. Probable impact of the action; 2. Any adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided; 3. Alternatives to the proposed action; 4. Local short-term uses of the environment and the long-term productivity; 5. Irreversible and irretrievable impact
Created by: cristinrae21
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