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bones and skeletal

bones and skeletal tissues

________ occucrs within the marrow caviites of the bones hematopoiesis (blood cell formation)
compact bone also called lamellar bone dense outer layer that is smooth to the naked eye
spongy bone internal honeycomb of trabeculae filled with red or yellow marrow
long bones consist of _______ and ______ diaphysis and epiphysis
diaphysis tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bones; composed of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity
yellow bone marrow (fat) contained in the medullary cavity
epiphysis expanded ends of the long bones; exterior is compact bone and interior is spongy bone
joint surface covered with articular (hyaline) cartilage
epiphyseal line separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis
osteoblasts bone forming cells
osteocytes mature bone cells
osteoclasts large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix
mesenchyme --> osteoblast --> osteocyte --> osseous (bone) --> compact and spongy bone osteogenic cells - develops into an osteoblast; osteoblast - forms bone matrix; osteocyte - maintains bone tissue; osteoclast- functions in resorption, teh breakdown of bone matrix.
periosteum part of bone memebrane that is double layered protective membrane covers all but joint surfaces in long bones;
inner osteogenic layer located on periosteum. composed of osteoblasts and osteoclasts
sharpey's fibers (collagen) secures the periosteum to the underlying bone
endosteum delicate membrane covering internal surfaces of bone
short, irregular and flat bones no diaphysis or epiphysis. contain bone marrow b/w the trabeculae, but no marrow cavity like long bone.
osteon or haversian system structural unit of compact bone
osteon little hollow weight-bearing pillars placed next to each other in compact bone
lamella osteons contain lamella that contain collagen fibers giving compact bone its tensile strength.
collagen fibers solubal gelatin white fibers of cross linked connective tissue; collagen fibers in adjacent lamella run in opposite direction to allow bone to withstand torsion. it gives the bones its tensile strength and allow bone to resist stretch and twisting
haversian canal central canal containing blood vessels
volkmann's canals channels lying at the right angles to the central canal, connecting blood supply of the periosteum to that of teh haversian canal. direct communication with medulla provided by blood vessels in volkmann's canal
chemical composition of bone organic 35% (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, osteoid). inorganic 65% (calcium phosphate crystals and other mineral salts)
osteiod consists of ground substance and collagen fibers made by osteoblasts.
calcium phosphate crystals responsible for bone hardness and its resistance to compression
skeletal cartilages contain no blood vessels or nerves
3 types of skeltal cartilages hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic. all 3 types contain cells called chondrocytes encased in lacunae containing ground substances
hyaline cartilage most abundant skeletal cartilage. present in articular, costal, respiratory, and nasal cartilages
elastic cartilage similar to hyaline but contains elastic fibers. found in external ear and epiglottis
fibrocartilage highly compressed with great tensile strength. contains collagen fibers. found in menisci of the knee and in intervertebral discs
remodeling units osteoblasts and osteoclasts. involves bone deposition and bone resorption. occurs at the surface of periosteum and endosteum
Created by: hjp501



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