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A&P Chapter 2

What are the three types of inorganic molecules that are important for life? Water, salts, and acids and bases
What are the four types of organic molecules that are important for life? Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Why is water called a “polar” molecule? Water is a polar molecule because it has a slight positive charge in the area of the hydrogen atoms and a slight negative charge in the area of the oxygen atom.
What are the 3 properties of water that make it so necessary for life? • Universal solvent • Ideal transport medium • Water is used for lubrication
How is an ion different from an atom? Atoms are neutral. An ion is an electrically charged particle produced by either removing electrons from a neutral atom to yield a positive ion or adding electrons to a neutral atom to yield a negative ion.
What is an electrolyte? substances that have the ability to transmit an electrical charge.
What are some examples of electrolytes? Sodium, potassium, and calcium are examples of electrolytes.
Which type of compound is known as a proton donor? Is it an acid or base? An acid is known as a proton donor.
Is a solution with a pH of 8.5 acidic or basic? A solution with a pH of 8.5 is basic.
How does a weak acid act as a buffer? A weak acid acts as a buffer because it helps the cell maintain a neutral pH.
What three elements are found in all carbohydrates? Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What is the name of a simple sugar? Pentose vs hexose? The name of a simple sugar is called monosaccharide. Pentose is a sugar with five carbons. Hexose is a sugar with six carbon atoms.
What process joins multiple simple sugars? Dehydration synthesis
What is another name for a complex, multiunit carbohydrate? Polysaccharide
What three elements are found in all lipids? Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen
Which atoms make up the backbone of all lipid molecules? Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen
Which lipids are polar: a)neutral fats or b) phospholipids? phospholipids
What is the function of lipids in the body? Lipids are used in the body for energy and are stored in fat for future energy needs.
What are the building blocks for proteins? The building blocks for proteins are amino acids.
What is the name of the bond holding two amino acids together? A peptide.
What is a peptide? A peptide is a molecule consisting of two or more amino acids in which the carboxyl group of one acid is linked to the amino group of the other.
What is a polypeptide? A polypeptide is a chain of 10 or more amino acids linked together.
How does an enzyme work? Enzymes speed up or catalyze chemical reactions without being destroyed or altered.
How does a nucleotide differ from a nucleic acid? Nucleic acids are the largest molecules in the body. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids.
What three parts compose a nucleotide? Nucleotides are composed of a nitrogenous base, plus a 5-carbon (pentose) sugar, plus a phosphate group.
How many nitrogenous bases are there? There are five nitrogen bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), uracil (U), and thymine (T).
How does an ATP molecule differ from a nucleotide? ATP is an RNA nucleotide containing the nitrogen base adenine with two additional phosphate groups attached.
Created by: avilla