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Acoustic Propagation Properties The effects of the medium upon the sound wave
Biological effects The effects of the sound wave upon the biologic tissue through which
What is sound? Carries energy from one place to another, longitudinal, travels through medium not vacuum
What is pressure? Concentration of force in an area
What is density? Concentration of mass in a volume
What is distance? Measure of particle motion
What is Period? The time it takes to complete one cycle
Spatial Refers to distance or space
What is peak? Maximum value
What is average? The mathematical middle value
Temporal Refers to all time transit and receive
Pulsed Refers only to transmit time only
Attenuation Decrease in intensity power and amplitude or weakening of a sound wave
Reflection As sound strikes a boundary a portion of waves energy may be redirected or reflected
Specular reflection When sound is reflected only in one direction in an organized manner from a smooth surface
Diffuse reflection When wave reflects off an irregular surface and it radiates and more than one direction
Scattering Random redirection of sound in many directions
Frequency Number of cycles per second
Amplitude The difference between a maximum and average value
Wavelength The distance or length of one complete cycle
Propagation speed The distance that a sound wave travels through a medium in one second
Stiffness Describes the ability of an object to resist compression
Density Describes the relative weight of a material
Pulse duration The actual time from the start of one post to the end of that post
Spatial pulse length The distance that a pulse occupies in space from the start to the end of a pulse
Pulse repetition period The time from the start of one pulse to the start of the next pulse
Pulse repetition frequency The number of pulses that an ultrasound system transmit into the body each second
Duty factor The percentage or fraction of time that the system is transmitting a pulse
Rayleigh scattering A special form of scattering that occurs when the structures dimensions are smaller than the Beams wavelength
Absorption 1 ultrasonic energy energy is converted into another energy forms such as heat
Attenuation coefficient The number of decibels of attenuation that occurs when the sound travels 1 centimeter
Half value layer thickness Distance that sound travels in a tissue that reduces intensity of sound to one half of its original size
Impendence The acoustic resistance to sound traveling in a medium
Normal incidence The incident sound Bean strikes boundary at exactly 90°
Oblique incidence When the incident sound Bean strikes to pound you at any angle other than 90 degrees
Piezoelectric Effect Describes the property of certain materials to create a voltage when they are mechanically deformed
Piezoelectric materials Materials which conversation sound into electricity
Acoustic Impedance Sound obstacle
Incident Intensity Intensity of sound beam immediately before it strikes the boundary
Reflected Intensity Intensity that after striking a boundary returns back or reflects to the TRX
Transmitted Intensity Intensity that after striking boundary continues foward in the same general direction that it travels before
Spatial Peak Intensity The beam's intensity at the location where it is maximum
Spatial Average Intensity The average intensity cross beam's entire cross-sectional area
Temporal Peak Intensity Measuring the intensity of the beam at the instant in time of its maximal value
Pulse Average Intensity Taking averge intensity during the pulse duration(transmit time)
Temporal Average Intensity Averaging the intensity during the entire pulse repetition period-both the transmit and receive times
Beam uniformity coefficient Spread of beam in space
Logarithms Is a novel method of reading numbers
Transmission Is critical to ultrasound's ability to image structures located deep in the body
Acoustic Impedance Is important tissue property that influences the amount of reflection
Go-return time or time-of-flight The elapsed time from pulse creation to pulse reception
The 13-Microsecond Rule Floor every 13 ms of go-return time, the object creating the reflection is 1 centimeter deeper in soft tissue
Created by: NarahA
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