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Ch 6 Bones

Bones review questions

What is bone? bones are organs
What types of tissues are associated with bone? osseous tissue, nervous tissue, cartilage, fibrous connective tissue,muscles, and epithelial tissue in blood vessels.
What is skeletal cartilage? Contains no blood vessels or nerves. It is surrounded by dense irregular connective tissue (perichondrium) that resists outward expansion.
what are 3 types of skeletal cartilage? hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
Fibrocartilage Is highly compressed w/ tensile strength. CONTAINS COLLAGEN FIBERS W/ ROWS OF CHONDROCYTES. Is found in menisci of knee and intervertebral discs.
Elastic cartilage is similar to hyaline cartilage but contains elastic fibers. IS FOUND IN EXTERNAL EAR AND EPIGLOTTIS
Hyaline cartilage Most abundant skeletal cartilage. provides support, flexibility and resilience.
hyaline cartilage is present in which 4 cartilages? Articular (covers ends of long bones), Costal (connects ribs to sternum), Respiratory (makes larynx, reinforces air passages) and Nasal (supports nose)
What are 2 types of cartilage growth? Appositional and Interstitial
Appositional cartilage growth: (outside, grow out) cells in perichondrium secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage.
Interstitial cartilage growth: (inside) lacunae bound chondrocytes inside cartilage divide and secrete new matrix expanding the cartilage from within.
When does calcification of cartilage occur? During normal bone growth and old age
what else can lead to calcification of cartilage? Hyper vitaminosis of D vitamins leads to hypercalcemia which causes calcification. Also gout and pseudogout.
Bone classification by location: (2 types) AXIAL SKELETON: skull bones,vertebral column and rib cage APPENDICULAR SKELETON: bones of upper and lower limbs, shoulder and hip
Bone classification by shape:(4 types) long bone (humerous), short bone (wrist ankle and patella), flat bones (sternum and most skull bones), IRREGULAR BONES (vertebrae and hip bones)
5 functions of the bones: Support, protection,movement (provide levers for muscles), mineral storage, blood cell formation.
Describe bone texture. What is trabeculae filled with? Bone has dense outer layer (compact bone) and internal layer of honeycomb trabeculae (spongey bone). TRABECULAE: filled with red or yellow bone marrow.
What are four important things for bone healing, strength, and growth? calcium, magnesium, vitamin D and physical pressure.
What is the structure of long bone? -Epiphyses (bone ends) -Expanded ends of long bones -Exterior (compact bones) -Interior (spongey bone) -Joint surface: covered with articular (Hyaline) cartilage -Epishysial line
What is the epiphyseal line of long bone? separates the diaphysis (midsection/shaft) from the epiphyses (bone ends aka pineal)
what membranes are found in bone? Periosteum (outside protective layer) Endosteum (inside covering internal surfaces)
What are sharpey's fibers (perforating)? Tufts of collagen fibers that expand from fibrous layer into bone matrix. They secure periosteum to underlying bone.
What is a collar? Compact bone that surrounds a central medullary cavity.
What is a diploe? the internal layer of spongey bone in flat bones.
Where might you find hematopoietic tissues (red marrow) in adults and infants? Infants: medullary cavity and all areas of spongey bone. Adults: in diploe of flat bones and head of the femur and humerus.
What increases blood calcium levels? PTH from parathyroid gland.
What is an osteogenic cell? stem cell, in membrane
What is an osteoblast? Bone forming cells
What is an Osteoclast? large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix. (bone destroying cells) (take calcium if no pressure on bones)
Whats an Osteocyte? Mature bone cells (what osteoblasts turn into when fully mature) they monitor mineralized bone matrix.
What is the structure (7 parts) of compact bone? Halversian system (osteon), lamella, Halversian/ central canal, volkmann's canals, osteocytes, lacunae, canaliculi.
What is the Halversian system (Osteon)? the structural unit of compact bone.
What are the volkmann's canals? Channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the halversian canal.
What is an osteoid? unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagen.
what are the (4) organic components of bone? Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, osteoid (osteogenic cells)
What are the inorganic components of bone? what is it responsible for? Hydroxyapatites, or mineral salts. 65% of bone by mass, MAINLY CALCIUM PHOSPHATES. They are responsible for bone hardness and its resistance to compression.
Homeostatic imbalances such as osteomalacia and Rickets are caused by what? and what can help cure them? caused by vitamin D deficiency. vitamin D fortified milk and sunlight can help cure them. NEED full spectrum of light!!!
What is Rickets? an analogous disease in children. more severe than osteomalacia because young bones are still rapidly growing.
What is Osteomalacia? "soft bones" in adults. bones inadequately mineralized. osteoid is produced but calcium salts not deposited so bones become soft and weak and you feel pain.
what is osteoporosis? Bone problems of the elderly. bones are porous and thin but bone composition is normal. CAUSES: old age, smoking, no exercise, lack vit D
What is paget's disease? Which parts of the skeleton does it affect? Abnormal bone formation and reabsorption. abnormally high ratio of spongey bone to compact bone. AFFECTS: spine, skull, pelvis, femur.
What is Hypocalcemia? low calcium, leads to hyperexitability of nervous system (twitching)
What is Hypercalcemia? high calcium (lots of milk in diet) and low quantities of magnesium (which moves calcium out of blood and into bones) HIGH calcium correlates with nonresponsiveness. can lead to calcium deposits and pseudogout.
What are the major differences between spongey bone and compact bone? How do the trabeculae align? Spongey bone looks like a poorly organized tissue. Trabeculae in spongy bone align precisely along lines of stress and help bones resist stress,
Created by: Chanellenae



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