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WVSOM neurotrans

WVSOM neurotransmitters 2-4-09

QuestionAnswer
What is the life cycle of a neurotransmitter? in the presynaptic nerve terminal, synthesis and packaging in vesicles, release, reuptake/recycling, release, receptor binding (covalent), receptor activation of 2nd messenger system in postsynaptic nerve terminal
If you have an action potential in the presynaptic neuron what does that do to calcium? allows to enter and stimulate exocytosis of the neurotransmitter
Where do the neurotransmitters bind to proteins at? the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron
What does the binding of neurotransmitters to the membrane cause? channels to open that allow the nerve impulse to be propagated
What degrades the neurotransmitter? presynaptic cell or glial cells (reuptake)
In order to be classified as a neurotransmitter what four things are needed? synthesized in neuron, always released in sufficient quantities to induce response, undergo degradation process to stop signal, mimic action of endogenous neurotransmitter
What are the three main classes of neurotransmitters? small molecule neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hydrophobic/gaseous neurotrasmitters
List the small molecule neurotransmitters? glutamate(+), aspartate (+), GABA (-), glycine (-), Catecholamines, Serotonin, Histamine, Purines (ATP & Adenosine)
List the neuropeptides? Opioid peptides – pain pleasure, Substance P
List the hydrophobic / gaseous neurotransmitters? Nitric oxide, Arachidonic Acid
Where are the building blocks coming from, hexos found in most food items ? Glucose
List the processes of small molecule neurotransmitters from start to finish? synthesis of enzyme in cell body, axonal transport of enzyme, synthesis and packaging of neurotransmitter in terminal, release and diffusion of neurotransmitter, transport of precursors into terminal
List the steps of peptide neurotransmitters from start to finish? synthesis of neurotransmitter precursors and enzymes in cell body, transport of enzyme and pre-peptide precursors down microtubule tracts, modification of enzymes in terminal end to produce peptide neurotransmitter, diffuses and degraded
What is responsible for breaking down acetylcholine? acetylcholinesterase
What does acetylcholine break down into? acetic acid and choline
What enzyme is responsible for synthesizing acetylcholine? choline acetyltransferase
What is the starting material for acetyl CoA and choline? glucose
What is the starting material for acetylcholine? acetyl CoA and choline
What are the two receptors that recognize acetylcholine? muscarinic, nicotinic
What does the binding of AChE to the cholinergic receptor result in? an increase sodium influx and potassium efflux which leads to postsynaptic membrane depolarization
What is the muscarinic receptor referred to as? metabotropic receptor
What mediates the mechanism of opening and closing ion transporters? action of a G-protein signal transduction
What does botox do? blocks acetylcholine release, muscle contraction and wrinkles
What happens when acetylcholine is released and able to bind to receptors on muscles? muscle contracts, frown lines form
What causes the symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease? areas of the brain tissue are damaged and some messages do not transmit
What is the rate regulation step for dopamine? transformation of tyrosine to L-Dopa
What enzyme transforms tyrosine to L-Dopa? tyrosine hydroxylase
What enzyme transforms L-Dopa to Dopamine? DOPA decarboxylase
What are the two mechanism for degrading Dopamine? MAO and COMT
What are the receptors for Dopamine? D1-D5
Where is dopamine degraded? liver
What is needed to synthesize dopamine? tyrosine or phenylalanine
What is the rate limiting step for the catecholamine biosynthesis? tyrosine hydroxylase
What converts L-DOPA to Dopamine? DOPA decarboxylase
What does the D1 receptor do after dopamine attaches? activates a G-protein stimilatory subunit
What does the G-protein stimilatory subunit do? it stimulates the adenylate cyclase
What is the end result of dopamine binding to the D1 receptor? depolarizatino of postsynaptic membrane
What is the end result of dopamine binding to the D2 receptor? hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membrane
What does dopamine binding to the D2 receptor cause? activation of inhibitor G-protein
What are the symptoms of parkinson’s disease? foward tilt of trunk, reduced arm swinging, shuffling gate with short steps, rigidity and trembling of head, rigidity and trembling of extremities
What causes parkinson’s disease? exact cause not known but NPTP the drug made causes symptoms of
What does Cocaine do to dopamine re-uptake? blocks the dopamine re-uptake transporter
Which enzyme transforms dopamine to norepinephrine? DBH dopamine beta hydroxylase
What does norepinephrine do? activates alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
Where is norepinephrine broken down? in the liver by MAO and COMT
What happens when norepinephrine binds to beta andrenergic receptor? activates g-protein stimulatory alpha
In order to produce norepi you need to have which enzymes? dopamine beta hydroxylase, vesicular ATPase, positively charged neurotransmitter
What is needed to synthesize doamine in catecholamine biosynthesis? tyrosine or phenylalanine
What is the rate limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis? tyrosine hydroxylase
What convertes L-Dopa to dopamine? DOPA decarboxylase
What are the two pathways of degradation of Norepinephrine? MAO and COMT
What does Norepinephrine degraded to? VMA
What converts Norepi to epinephrine? PNMT phenylethanol amine N-methyltransferase
Where is epinephrine degraded? liver by MAO and COMT
Which receptors do epinephrine bind to? alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
What happens when epinephrine binds to beta adrenergic receptor? activation of G-protein stimulatory alpha
What is the starting material for serotonin? tryptophan
What enzyme converts tryptophan to 5-HTP? tryptophan hydroxylase
What enzyme converts 5-HTP to 5-HT aka serotonin? 5-hydroxy tryptophan decarboxylase
What two pathways does serotonin take? ionotropic and metabotropic
What receptors are for serotonin on the ionotropic pathway? 5-HT3 Receptor
What receptors are for serotonin on the metabotropic pathway? 5HT1, 5HT2, 5HT4, and 5HT7
What gives rise to Serotonin? Tryptophan
What aminoacids are used for the synthesis of serotonin? tryptophan hydroxylase, dopa decarboxylase
What is glutamate synthesized from? glutamine
What receptors does glutamate bind to? NMDA, AMPA, Kainate, and mGlu1-mGlu8
what third cell is involved in glutamate reuptake? glial cell
What takes place in the glial cell? glutamate gets converted into glutamine
What is involved in the production of GABA? glutamate
What is the process in glial cell? Glutamate to GABA then GABA is released, it binds to GABA A and GABA B
What is Aspartate? an excitatory neurotransmitter
What is involved in aspartate synthesis? oxaloacetate
What is Glycine? major inhibitory neurotransmitter
What is involved in glycine synthesis? serine
Where do we get glutamate, aspartate and GABA from? from the TCA cycle in the mitochondria
Name the events from start to finish for aspartate? glucose> fructose 1,6,bisphosphate> 3 – phosphoglycerate >pyruvate >TCA cycle > OAA >aspartate
Name the events from start to finish for glutamate? glucose> fructose 1,6,bisphosphate> 3 – phosphoglycerate >pyruvate >TCA cycle > alpha ketogluterate> glutamate
Name the events from start to finish for GABA? glucose> fructose 1,6,bisphosphate> 3 – phosphoglycerate >pyruvate >TCA cycle > alpha ketogluterate >glutamate> GABA
Name the events from start to finish for Glycine? glucose> fructose 1,6,bisphosphate> 3 – phosphoglycerate > serine> FH4 >glycine
How are neuropeptides stored and how are they released? vesicles and same as other neurotransmitters
What mechanism is used for migration of neuropeptides? axoplasmic transport
What happens to the prepropetides as the vesicles move down the axon? they are continually modified by enzymes including proteases
Once released what happens to the neuropeptides? degraded using a series of proteases found within the extracellular space and the synaptic cleft
What are opiods primarily involved in? pain control
List 4 different types of opiods and what they bind to? met-enkephalin binds to the mu and delta receptors, leu-enkephalin binds to the mu and delta receptors, dynorphins binds primarily to κ receptors, beta-endorphin binds primarily to mu receptors
How many amino acids make up opiods? 4
How many amino acids make up Substance P? 11
How many amino acids make up somatostatin? 13
What is substance p thought to do? depolarize neurons through the IP3 second messenger system
What is substance P involved in? pain sensation
What is somatostatin involved in? inhibiting the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
What are the three enzymes of nitric oxide called? N-NOS neuronal, E-NOS endothelial, I-NOS inducible
Is nitric oxide a free radical or bound? free radical
What type of neurotransmitter is Nitric Oxide? retrograde neurotransmitter
What does Nitric Oxide Elicit? release of glutamine
Where is its main function going to? postsynaptic neuron
What does nitric oxide cause? relaxation of smooth muscles
Created by: hagerman