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chem reveiw

The nucleus of an atom is made of? Protons and neutrons
what moves around the nucleus and carry a negative charge? electrons
the outer energy shell of the atom is called the valence shell
which part of the atom determines how it will interect with other atoms valence electrons
what is a element substance in its simplest form
can an element be broken down no it can not
what is an ion atoms or mocules that carry an electrical charge
what is an cation atoms that have lost electrons
what is an anion atoms that have gaind electrons
how do you know how many electrons were lost or gained the number of - or + they have connected to them
what is a molecule 2 or more atoms held together by a covalent bond.
what is an example of a molecule O2, H2, H2O,CO2
What is a compound Made up of atoms of two or more different elements, regardless of the type of bond joining them
Can a compound be a molecule No
Can a compound be an ionic or covalent bond Yes, bond doesn't matter
What is a free radical An ion or molecule that contains unpaired electrons
How does an ion or molecule become a free radical Normal metabolic reactions, chemicals that enter the body from chemicals ,
Why are too many free radicals bad Can cause a chain reactions, cause oxidative stress
What is an ionic bond Chemical bonds treated by the electrical attraction between anions and cations.Disassociates in water
How is an ionic bond created Losing or gaining electrons
What do ionic bonds do when dissolved in water Separate from each other
What is it called when they dissolve in water Disassociation
What are some examples of ironically bonded compounds HCL, NaCL
What is a covalent bond Allows atoms to complete there outer shells by sharing electrons
How is a covalent bond created By loosing and gaining electrons
What is the terminology when a covalent bond shares one, two and three pairs of electrons Single, double, triple covalent bonds
What is a polar covalent bond The electrons spend more time on one end than the other on a molecule
What is the most common polar covalent bonded molecule in the body Water
What is hydrogen bond Exists between 2 polar molecules that contain hydrogen
What are 2 most common hydrogen bonded molecules in the body H2O, DNA
What is a no polar covalent bond Both molecules are neutral , so they spend equal time around eachother
What is activation energy The amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
How do enzymes affect activation energy By lowering activation energy requirements
What is an electrolyte Soluble in organic molecules who is ion will conduct an electrical current in solutions
How are electrolyte created in the body Dissolved in water in the body Siri
What does hydrophobic Mean Not attracted to water ex. Fats,oils,lipids
What does hydrophilic mean Attracted to water. Ex. Acids,bases,salts,sugars,phosphate heads
What's does logarithm I mean on the ph scale Each number on the ph scale is 10x more or less increased then the next or before number
What pH is considered neutral pH 7 (10-7)
What does a pH of 6 mean Acidic
What does a pH of 8 mean Base
How do you know if something is an acid Disassociative solution and releases hydrogen And something else. Ex. HCL
How do you know if something is a base Salute that removes hydrogen ions from solutions breaks down into OH-. Ex. HCO3-
How do you know if something is a salt They dissociate completely into cations and anions
What is a buffer Does remove or replace H+ in the body temporarily
What nutrient acts a buffer in the blood Proteins
What is glycogen Storable glucose
Where is glycogen stored Muscle skeletal cells and liver cells
What hormone stimulates the breakdown of glycogen Insulin
What is the breakdown of glycogen called Glycogenolysis
What is a triglyceride glycerol + 3 fatty acids
Is triglycerides hydrophilic or hydrophobic Hydrophobic
What are the functions of a triglycerides Energy source, protection, insulation
What is a saturated fat All carbons are bond to hydrogen. Hard @room temp.
Are saturated fats hydrophilic or hydrophobic Hydrophobic
What is an unsaturated fat Double covalent bond not all bonded to hydrogen very flexible fatty acid
Unsaturated fats hydrophilic or hydrophobic Hydrophobic
Why are saturated fatty acid stiffer than unsaturated fats All the spots are filled with hydrogen
What are some of the uses for steroids Maintain growth and division, sex hormones, tissue metabolism, bile salts maintain plasma membrane
Are steroids hydrophilic or hydrophobic Hydrophobic
What is cholesterol A lipid. A steroid made in the liver used to make cell membranes amd hormones
Is cholesterol hydrophilic or hydrophobic Hydrophobic
What are the two ways the body can obtain cholesterol Diet and synthesis within the body
What is the construction of a phospholipid Glycerol with 2 fatty acids, phosphate group
What part of a phospholipid is hydrophilic Non-lipid heads
What part of a phospholipid is hydrophobic Fatty acid tails
What are the basic functions of proteins Support and structural, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic coordination and defense
What are the building blocks of proteins Amino acids
What are peptide bonds Covalent bonds that hydrogen bonds along the length of the chain
How do proteins get twisted The hydrogen bonding how long the bond holds them to become twisted
What is denaturation When proteins are destroyed
What causes denaturation Heat acidic environment
What is an enzyme A substance that helps speed up chemical reactions
What is enzymes functions Lowers activation energy requirements
What is a substrate What the chemical is going to be changed to by the enzyme
What is a product What the chemical is called after it changed , what it becomes
What is a cofactor/coenzyme Vitamins and minerals necessary for enzymes to work
What are some examples of cofactors and coenzymes Iron zinc calcium magnesium and B vitamins
What is a nucleic acid Chains or strands of proteins
What is a nucleic acid made out of Nucleotides
What kind of chemical bond holds them covalent bonds
What is the function of nucleic acid's Store and transfer information at the mu macular lava that's necessary for protein synthesis in the cell
What are two nucleic acid's DNA and RNA
What is the primary function of ATP Stores and transfer energy from one mic molecule to another
What is ATP made out of Three phosphate groups's plus a nuclear tide
What is AMP Adenosine monophosphate
What is ADP Adenosine diphosphate
Comparing ATP and ADP in AMP what's one contains the most potential energy ATP