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chapter 5 review

Compare and contrast osteoblast and osteoclast. - Osteoblast - bone-forming cells. - Osteoclast - large cells that break down bones. - They’re both types of bone cells.
Who usually gets rickets and what is it caused by? (at the clinic) - Contrast: - Opened fracture - broken bone penetrates through the skin. - Closed fracture - break that does not penetrate the skin. - Compare: - Breaks.
Compare and contrast open and closed reduction. (matching, at the clinic) - In closed reduction, the bone ends are coaxed back into their normal position by the physician’s hands - In open Reduction, surgery is performed, and the bone ends are secured together with pins or wires. - they are both types of bone repairs made by a
List the order of a bone fracture repair. - Hematoma forms - Fibrocartilage callus forms - Bony Callus forms - Bone Remodeling occurs
Name and describe the 6 common types of fractures. (matching, at the clinic) Comminuted breaks into fragments. Compression is crushed. Depressed broken is pressed inward. Impacted broken ends are forced into each other. Spiral breaks occur when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone. Greenstick breaks - green twig breaks
Where is the hyoid bone, why is it so different from other bones, what are its functions? (short answer) The hyoid bone is located in the upper neck. Serves as a moveable base for the tongue and as an attachment point for neck muscles that raise and lower the larynx when we swallow and speak.
Contrast a fetal skull with an adult skull. (short answer) A fetal skull is ¼ the length of the body and an adult skull is ⅛ the length of a body.
What are fontanels, where are they found, when do they go away? (short answer) Fontanels are soft spots that are the fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones in a newborn's skull. They usually disappear around 24 months of age.
What are the functions of joints, how are they classified? (short answer) Functions of joints - hold bones together, allow for mobility Classification - functionally, structurally
Name and describe functional joints. (matching) Synarthroses - Immovable joints Amphiarthroses - Slightly movable joints Diarthroses - Freely movable joints
Name and describe structural joints. (matching) Fibrous joints -bone ends/parts united by collagenic fibers; Mostly immovable, some slightly movable Cartilaginous joints - bone ends/parts united by cartilage; Mostly immovable or some slightly movable Synovial joints - Freely movable
What is a sprain and why does it take so long to heal? (matching, at the clinic) ligaments (cords of fibrous tissues that connect bones) or tendons (cords of fibrous tissues that connect muscle to bone) are damaged. Ligaments and tendons have poor blood supply, thus heal slowly and are extremely painful.
What is arthritis and what are the symptoms? (matching, at the clinic) Arthritis: inflammatory or degenerative disease of joints. Symptoms: pain, stiffness, swelling of the joint.
Compare and contrast osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. (matching, at the clinic Osteoarthritis-most common chronic arthritis and probably related to the aging process. Rheumatoid Arthritis-an autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks the joints
What is gout, how can it be prevented and who usually gets it? (matching, at the clinic) inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of uric acid crystals from the blood. More common in men. Can be controlled by diet.
Whom does osteoporosis affect and how? (matching, at the clinic) It affects 50% of women over the age of 65. Disease makes bones fragile/brittle, and bones can easily fracture.
Created by: emarroquin