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Chapter 5 Review

Compare & contrast osteoblast & osteoclast osteoblast: bone-forming cells osteoclast: large cells that break down bone both types of bone cells
Who usually gets rickets & what is it caused by? (at the clinic) Children; lack of calcium or vitamin D
Compare & contrast open & closed fracture (matching, at the clinic) opened: broken bone; penetrates through skin broken: break that doesn't penetrate the skin both break
Compare & contrast open & close reduction (matching, at the clinic) closed reduction- bone ends are coaxed back into normal positions by hand open reduction- surgery both repaired by doctors
List the order of a bone fracture repair 1. hematoma forms 2. fibrocartilage callus forms 3. bony callus forms 4. bone remodelling occurs
Name & describe the 6 common types of fractures (matching, at the clinic) pt. 1 comminuted- bones breaks into many fragments compression- bone crushed depressed- broken portion is pressed inward
Name & describe the 6 common types of fractures (matching, at the clinic) pt. 2 impacted- broken ends are forced into each other spiral- ragged breaks occur when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone greenstick- bone breaks incompletely much in the way a green twig breaks
Where is the hyoid bone, why is it so different from other bones, what are its functions? (short answer) upper neck; only bone that does not articulate directly with any other bone; serves as moveable base for tongue & as attachment point for neck muscles that raise higher & lower the larynx when we swallow & speak
Contrast a fetal skull with an adult skull (short answer) fetal skull: 1/4 the length of the body; not fully developed; soft spots adult skull: 1/8 the length of the body; fully developed; no soft spots
What are fontanels, where are they found, when do they go away? (short answer) soft spots that are the fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones in a newborn's skull. They usually disappear around 2 years old
What are the function of joints, how are they classified? (short answer) holds bones together & allow for mobility; functionally and structurally
Name & describe functional joints. (matching) synarthroses: immovable amphiarthroses: slightly movable diarthroses: freely movable
Name & describe structural joints. (matching) fibrous: bone ends/parts united by collagenic fibers; immovable, some slightly movable cartilaginous: cone ends/parts united by cartilage; immovable, slightly movable synovial: bone ends/parts covered with articular cartilage; freely movable
What is a sprain & why does it take so long to heal? (matching, at the clinic) ligaments or tendons are damaged. Ligaments & tendons have poor blood supply, thus heal slowly & are extremely painful
What is arthritis & what are the symptoms? (matching, at the clinic) inflammatory or degenerative disease of joints; pain, stiffness, swelling of the joint
Compare & contrast osteoarthritis & rheumatoid arthritis. (matching, at the clinic) OA: most common chronic arthritis & related to the aging process RA: autoimmune disease where immune system attacks joints. Symptoms begin with inflammation of certain joints & often leads to deformities
What is gout, how can it be prevented & who usually gets it? (matching, at the clinic) inflammation of joints; dieting; men
Whom does osteoporosis affect & how? (matching, at the clinic) 50% of women over 65; makes bones fragile/brittle
2 diagrams thoracic cavity p. 153; posterior vertebral column p. 157; ribs
Created by: kajones97