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Mod 4 Ch 50 & 51

Ch 50 Electrocardiography, Ch 51 Pulmonary Function

electrocardiogram -ECG / EKG -record produced by electrocardiography
electrical cardiac cycle one set of PQRST waves
P wave atrial depolarization (contraction) as initiated by the SA node
QRS complex ventricular depolarization (contraction)
T wave repolarization (returning to a resting / relaxed state)
artifact errors on EKG rhythm strips caused by a variety of factors including somatic (muscle) tremors, wandering baseline (poor contact with skin), and 60-cycle or AC current interference
V1 4th intercostal space, right sternal border
V2 4th intercostal space, left sternal border
V3 Midway between V2 and V4
V4 5th intercostal space, below nipple, left of midclavicular line
V5 Left of anterior axillary fold, in line with V4
V6 Left of MIDAXILLARY, in line with V4 and V5
Lead I right arm to left arm (top of triangle)
Lead II right arm to left leg (right side of triangle)
Lead III left arm to left leg (left side of triangle)
AVR Right arm + midpoint of left arm and left leg
AVL Left arm + midpoint of right arm and left leg
AVF Left leg + midpoint of right arm and left arm
EKG paper moves at speed of 25 mm/sec in all machines
2 types of EKG machines -single channel (one lead at a time) -multichannel (all 12 leads simultaneously)
MA's responsibility when recording an EKG produce a clear and accurate tracing for each patient
When do you change from 25 mm/sec to 50 mm/sec when the heart rate is rapid, such as tachycardia
chest leads precordial leads
intercostal space space between ribs
sinus bradycardia (abn strip) normal cycles but less than 60 bpm
sinus tachycardia (abn strip) normal cycles but more than 100 bpm
ventricular fibrillation (abn strip) -waves are irregular and rounded -contractions uncoordinated
ventricular tachycardia (abn strip) -3 or more consecutive pvc's -complexes are wide/tall and bizarre in appearance
rhythm strip run on lead II for 20 seconds
inspiration strip run on lead II for 10 seconds while pt is holding breath
Multiple Gated Acquisition Scan -MUGA -test to check perfusion in myocardium -does not require exercise
Holter monitor -recorded for 24 hour period -uses 5 disposable chest sensors
pacemakers -electronic devices that help heart maintain normal rhythm -increases heart rate in bradycardia -decreases heart rate in tachycardia
Pulmonary Function Tests -PFTs -are a part of a pt's yearly physical to determine a baseline study of their lung function
Total Lung Capacity -TLC -volume of the lungs at peak inspiration - = tidal vol + exp reserve vol + insp reserve vol + residual vol
Inspiratory Capacity -IC -amt of air that can be inhaled after normal expiration
Vital Capacity -VC -amt of air that can be exhaled following forced inspiration and including maximum expiration
pulmonary conditions -coughing -wheezing -cyanosis -rales - crackles heard when listening to the chest -hemoptysis - blood in sputum
rales -pulmonary condition -crackles heard when listening to the chest
hemoptysis -pulmonary condition -blood in sputum
Disorders of Respiratory System (5) -hay fever -pneumonia -pleuritis -pneumothorax -hemothorax
hay fever disorder of respiratory system -aka allergic rhinitis -allergic rxn to dust, pollen, etc that causes runny nose, sneezing, and congestion
pneumonia disorder of respiratory system -inflammation or fluid fills the alveoli -due to infection caused by bacteria, virus, or fungus
pleuritis disorder of respiratory system -aka pleurisy -inflammation of the lining of the chest wall and lungs -sharp pain upon inspiration -can develop after other lung infections, trauma, or diseases
pneumothorax disorder of respiratory system -collapsed lung -caused by buildup of air / gases that accumulate in pleura (space between chest wall and lungs)
hemothorax disorder of respiratory system -collection of blood in pleura -most commonly caused by chest trauma
spirometry -non-invasive test that measures the ability of the lungs to exhale -reflects elasticity, ability to ventilate, and strength of respiratory muscles
pulmonary volumes (4) 1. Tidal volume 2. Expiratory Reserve Volume 3. Inspiratory Reserve Volume 4. Residual Volume
Pulmonary Capacities (4) 1. Total lung capacity 2. Vital capacity 3. inspiratory capacity 4. functional residual capacity
Expiratory Reserve Volume -ERV -max amt of air left that can be exhaled after normal expiration
Forced Vital Capacity -FVC -Amt of air that can be forcefully exhaled from a max inhaltion
peak flow meter -measures the pt's ability to move air into and out of the lungs -MA's responsibility to teach pt and family ht use it -usually average three tries -pt should keep a daily log of results
oxygen saturation -measured in % -determines the Oxygen content of arterial blood -can determine dangerous levels even before hypoxia sets in
nebulizer -delivers medication via aerosol to deeper areas of lungs -can be done in office or at home -in office, check drug 3 times before mixing with diluent
inhaler -holds about 200 doses of prescribed med -can be used alone or with spacer -often misused, resulting in inadequate treatments
Created by: vanstellee