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Ch. 27

Cardiology and Lymphatics

what is hypertension commonly called high blood pressure
how is high blood pressure diagnosed separate readings over several weeks above 140/90
what is prehypertension 120-140
what i the difference between primary and secondary hypertension secondary is caused by something else
what happens to the coronary walls in CAD they narrow
at what point do symptoms of CAD develop angina or heart attack
what are symptoms of CAD chest pain, nausea, vomiting, and diaphoresis
how does angioplasty improve CAD it widens the vessels
what is the common name for myocardial infarction heart attack
what tests are done immediately to diagnose an MI 12 lead ECG and blood test
what is the most reliable test for heart muscle damage troponin test
what are some symptoms that women tend to have with a MI nausea, shortness of breath, back or jaw pain, and sometimes chest discomfort
which part of the heart is most affected by heart failure left ventricle
what are the most common signs and symptoms of heart failure respiratory problems, edema, decreased O2%
list three diagnostic tests for heart failure echo cardiogram, chest xray, blood test
who is at greatest risk for developing heart failure African Americans and the elderly
what is an aneurysm abnormal dilation in the wall of a blood vessel by more than 50%
where are the two most common places that aneurysms occur the brain and abdominal aortic
what are the symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm sudden severe headaches and hemorrhagic stroke
what are the symptoms of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm pain in the abdomen or back
what happens to the atria in atrial fibrillation they quiver uncontrollably
what age group is atrial fibrillation most common over 70
what can happen to the blood in the atria in atrial fibrillation blood can pool and clot
what does an atrial fibrillation pulse feel like rapid and irregular
what are some symptoms of atrial fibrillation shortness of breath, dizziness, and exercise intolerance
what medication is usually prescribed for atrial fibrillation digoxin
why do varicose veins develop in veins and not arteries be cause the blood flow is under low pressure
what are some risk factors for developing varicose veins obesity, pregnancy, prolonged sitting and standing
what is another name for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) thrombophlebitis
what are some contributing factors for developing DVT clotting disorders, heart failure, estrogen use, pregnancy, and obesity
what are some common signs and symptoms of DVT dull ache, feeling of heaviness, and edema
what diagnostic test is used to confirm DVT compression ultrasound
how is DVT treated heparin or enoxaprin
what do all forms of extreme shock lead to hypotension
what two things are always signs of shock anxiety and decreased level of consciousness
how is shock treated blood transfusions, IV fluids, and vasoactive medications
what is anemia when hemoglobin level drops below a specific point
who is most commonly anemic women and those with chronic diseases
can kidney failure cause anemia yes
what is the treatment for iron-deficiency anemia iron and VC supplements
what are the signs and symptoms of anemia weakness, fatigue, light headed
what is leukemia malignancy of the blood
which type of leukemia commonly affects children ALL
what does a blood test (CBC) show in leukemia anemia, abnormal wbc count, platelets, and rbcs
what is another name for Hodgkin disease lymphoma
what system does this cancer affect lymph system
how is it diagnosed by finding giant reed-sternberg cells in biopsied lymph node
what risk factors lead to 100 times greater risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma previous treatments w/ immunposuppresive therapy
what are some treatments for non hodgkin lymphoma radiation, chemo, bone marrow transplant
what organism causes AIDS HIV
how is HIV spread direct contact through bodily fluids
what are some common means of transportation of HIV unprotected sex, sharing needles, and kids born to infected mothers
what is the current life expectancy of a Pt with AIDS 10 yrs from diagnosis
what four things does the physician focus on during a cardiology exam skin, heart and lung sounds and any edema
what is an implantable cardioverter defibrillator do helps Pts that have life threatening arrhythmias
what is the purpose of a cardiac stress test to evaluate the heart's response to physical exercise
adenoma tumor of a gland
angioedema swelling of a vessel
vasorrhaphy suture of a vessel
aortostenosis narrowing or stricture of the aorta
arteriosclerosis hardening of the artery
atheroma thick fatty tumor
atrioventricular pertaining to the atria and the ventricles
tachycardia condition of a rapid heart beat
electrocardiogram electrical recording of the heart
hemolytic pertaining to the destruction of the blood
hematemesis vomiting of blood
lymphoma lymph tumor
phleborrhexis rupture of a vein
venostasis stopping of a vain (refers to slowed blood flow)
splenomegaly enlarged spleen
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein in the presence of a cot
ventriculostomy mouth like opening in the ventricle
bradycardia condition of a slow heart
microcardia condition of a small heart
supraventricular pertaining to above the ventricles
thrombocyte clotting cell (also used for platelets)
phlebocentesis surgical puncture of a vein (phlebotomy)
lymphedema swelling caused by lymph fluid
leukemia a condition of white blood cells (refers to malignancy of the blood)
hemogenesis creation of blood
angiography recording of a vessel
hematologist specialist in the study of blood
hemolysis destruction of blood cells
cardiomegaly enlarged heart
arteriole small artery
venule small vein
adenopathy diseased gland
erythrocyopenia deficiency of red blood cells
hemorrhage bursting forth of blood (severe bleeding)
anemia reduction in the mass of circulating red blood cells
aneurysm dilation in the wall of a blood vessel due to weakness or a congenital defect
angina chest pain or pressure caused by insufficient oxygen supply to the heart muscle
arrhythmia irregular heart rhythm
atrial occlusion blockage of blood flow through an artery
atherosclerosis condition in which fatty plaque deposits accumulate on the inner walls of arteries
bruit abnormal arterial or venous swishing sound heard on auscultation
cardiomyopathy any of several diseases that affects the heart muscle
crackles abnormal lung sound heard on auscultation that is produced by air passing over retained airway secretions or sudden opening of collapsed alveoli
embolus mass of undissolved solid, liquid, or gaseous matter floating in the blood
endocarditis infection or inflammation of the valves and inner lining of the heart
ischemia temporary reduction of blood supply to a localized area of tissue
murmur blowing or swishing sound in the heart due to turbulent blood flow or backflow through a leaky valve
orthopnea labored breathing that occurs when laying flat and is relieved by sitting upright
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea episodic dyspnea at night that occurs repeatedly and without warning
petechiae small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots on the skin that appear in Pts with platelet deficiencies and in many febrile illnesses
postphlebitic syndrome condition sometimes following deep vein thrombosis in which the Pt experiences chronic edema and aching
premature atrial contraction heartbeat stimulated by a group of irritable cells in the atria other than the SA node
premature ventricular contraction heartbeat stimulated by a group of irritable cells in the ventricles
primary hypertension hypertension that has no identifiable cause; also called essential hypertension
pulmonary edema accumulation of fluid in the interstitium and alveoli of the lungs
pulmonary embolism obstruction of a pulmonary artery from an embolus
rhonchi low pitched snoring, squeaking, or gurgling sound heard during auscultation of the lungs and caused by partial airway obstruction from mucus
secondary hypertension hypertension caused by an identifiable factor
shock syndrome marked by inadequate perfusion and oxygenation of cells, tissues, and organs due to low blood pressure
venous stasis sluggish blood flow caused by venous congestion
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome late stage infection with human immunodeficiency virus
Hodgkin disease malignant lymphoma characterized by giant reed-sternberg cells
lymphadenopathy enlargement and tenderness of lymph nodes due to local or regional infection or tumor growth
lymphosarcoma cancer of the lymphatic tissue not related to Hodgkin disease
mononucleosis acute infection with the Epstein Barr virus, which causes sore throat, fever, fatigue, and enlarged lymph nodes
non Hodgkin lymphoma group of malignant tumors of B or T lymphocytes
AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
BP blood pressure
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
DVT deep vein thrombosis
HTN hypertension
INR international normalized ratio
LA left atrium
LV left ventricle
MI myocardial infarction
PAC premature atrial contraction
PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PT prothrombin time
PVC premature ventricular contraction
RBC red blood cells
PTT partial thromboplastin time
RA right atrium
RV right ventricle
WBC white blood cell
PCP pneumocystis pneumonia
Created by: rewebb
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