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Ch 14-15

Religous Wars and the Age of Discovery

QuestionAnswer
What were two main precursors to the Protestant Reformation? Babylonian Captivity, Great Schism
Who were some early reformers? John Wycliffe, Jan Hus and the conciliarists
Who were the two main renaissance humanists? Sir Thomas More and Desiderius Erasmus
What were the three clerical abuses in the church? immoral priests; ignorance; pluralism
What was the main problem that caused Luther to pin the 95 theses? indulgences
What are indulgences and why were they established? Money paid to the church equaled less tim in purgatory; Pope Leo X needed mor money to finish construction of St. Peter's Basiclica
What is considered the year of the official start of the Reformation? 1517
What did Martin Luther post on the door of the Catholic Church that started the Reformation? The 95 theses
What was the Diet of Worms? meeting of the princes of the HRE and the emperor
Why was Luther summoned to the Diet of Worms? He was asked to recant, but he was declared and outlaw because he refused
What invention contributed to the success of the Reformation? the printing press
Who protect Martin Luther after he was excommunicated? Prince Frederick III of Saxony at the Warburg Castle
What language did Martin Luther translate the Bible into? German
What were the three main beliefs of Luther? sola fide; sola scriptura; religious and secular vocations are equal
What was the cause of the Peasant Revolts? religious change caused peasants to believe ther could be political change; thought Luther would support them
Did Luther support the peasant revolts? No, sympathetic with some things, but did not support the violence; told nobles to put down the revolts; 100,000 peasants died, Luther said they got what they deserved
What did Luther's German translation increase? German patriotism
Political Implication of the Reformation a faith different from the majority = new faith, political threat
What caused 100 yrs, of political wars? the reformation
Were peasants worse off or better off after the reformation worse
What did the clergy now have to do? pay taxes
What is individualism changed the way people though of themselves; thought for themselves about Bible
What were some social implications of the reformation literacy for both boys & girls; promoted marriage and affirmed the place of women as an integral part of the home; clergy now brought into secular life; attracted middle class
What were some intellectual implications of the reformation? increase in literacy, common people study the Bible for themselves, Luther promoted music, Catholic and Counter Refomation embraced Baroque music and art style
What areas were Lutheran? Scandinavia and parts of Germany
What areas remained Catholic France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Belgium and souther Germany
What country became Anglican England
What areas became Calvinist? Switzerland, Holland, Scotland, parts of France and some British people
Who was Zwingli? A Swiss who had similar ideas to Luther's but believed that the Eucharist was a memorial
Who was John Calvin? started Calvinism in Geneva; believed in theocracy
What was Calvin's main belief? predestination
What was the government of Geneva like? consistory; pastors and laymen to watch over behavior of Genevans and administor correction; investigated absence from church and serious crimes
What denominations were influenced by Calvinism? presbyterian church in Scotland; Huguenots, puritans in England
What did anabaptists believe about the government? separation of church and state
What was the Supremacy Act? made the king the supreme head of the church in England (did this to marry Anne Boleyn); behead Sir Thomas More
What did the Church of England do to the monasteries? ended them
What did Edward VI do? ended the monasteries
How did "Bloody Mary" get her nickname? trying to force England back to Catholicism/executed hundreds of Protestants
What did Elizabeth say about religion enforce Church of England, but didn't care what people privately believed as long as they didn't cause trouble (Elizabethan Settlement)
Why was Reform in the Catholic Church slow? Popes were preoccupied with Italian politics and saw Germany as a land of Barbarians
When was the Council of Trent (1545-1563)
What was the council of trent attempted to reconciliation with Protestants; equal value of scripture and tradition; emphasis on education; baroque art style affirmed
Who founded the Society of Jesuits? Ignatius Loyola
What was the Jesuits> education and missionary work
What was the Holy Office part of the Spanish Inquisition to attack and punish heresy
What was the Index of Prohibited Books? books established by the Catholic Church that were prohibited
What did Northern Renaissance art emphasize? common people, religious themes, background detail
What did protestant baroque art tend to focus on? daily life
what were some characteristics of baroque art direct emotional involvement; expressed power, triumph and control; movement fusion of sculture and painting and arhitecture
Important artists Carracci, Caravaggio, Berini, Reubens, Rembrandt, VErmeer, Velasquez
Who helped to develop the baroque style carracci
When was the extreme witch hunting? 1560-1660
Who developed the essay? Michel de Montaigne
What were some important works of Elizabethan and Jacobean literature? Shakespeare's plays, KJV
What lands did Charles V inherit Spain (&NW empire) HRE, Austria, Low Countries, parts of Italy, Philippines
What were the three wars that Charles V was fighting? Schmalkaldic (vs. Lutherans, France (for control of ITaly), Ottoman Empire (for Austria)
What were the Schmalkaldic Wars? 1530-1555 between Catholics and Lutherans; ended by Peace of Augsburg 1555
What was the Peace of Augsburg 1555? whose realm, his religion (Catholic or Lutheran, did not include Calvinists)
When did Charles V abdicate? Why? 1556; health problems
What did Ferdinand get from Charles V? HRE
What was the Concordat of Bologna? French rulers got control over appointments in the church of France, gave them a reason to support and fight for the church, appointees often didn't have spiritual qualifications, average people were attracted to the Reformation
What was the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre 1572? Catholics massacred Huguenots
What was the Edict of Nantes (1598)? granted huguenots liberty of worship
The 10 southern provinces fell to what and became what? Catholic forces; Belgium
The 7 northern provinces remained what and became what? Calvinist, Holand
What was the Union of Utrecht, Holland declared independence from Spain
What religion was Philip II Catholic
What were causes of the Thirty Years War? cold war between Catholics & Protestants, Calvinists not included, Neither side satisfied with Peace of Augsburg HR emperor tried to to reassert his power, Foreign powers wanted German land - Germany weak
What word means thrown out the window? defenestration
What were the four phases of the thirty years war? Bohemian (1620-1625); Danish (1625-1629); Swedish (1631-1634); French (1635-1648)
What was the Edict of Restitution and what phase was it apart of? lands to be given back to Catholic Church, no rights for Calvinists, power of emperor was growing; Danish phase
What was the Peace of Westphalia (1648)? end of religious wars; Catholic and Protestant division become permanent; Sweden & France gained land, Holland officially independent, emperor became a figure head, Sweden & France gained land, Holland officially independent
What was Germany like after the Thirty Years War? 1/3 of the population dead, diseases, refugees fled, intensified by inflation, many small farmers had to sell land, become serfs, still disunited
When was the Age of Discovery? 1450-1650
In the 1400's how much did the Europeans know about the earth? about as much as the Romans
What force was conquering and frightening Europeans? Ottoman Empire
What were some of the reasons that people wanted to explore the world? gold, spices, overseas routes to India & China, curiousity, convert others, find legendary places,
Who was Marco Polo? (1254-1324) followed overland trade route to China in late 1200's
Who was "The Navigator"? Prince Henry of Portugal (1394-1460) established navigation school;
Where di Vasco de Gama go? (1498) India
What was the caravel? small, light, wind-powered ship with cargo space, mounted cannons; did not need soldiers or rowers
What two inventions helped with navigation? magnetic compass, astrolabe
Who was Columbus? 1492- took a 33 day voyage to Caribbean; knew the earth was round but underestimated its size
What was the Treaty of Tordesillas? 1494- to prevent conflict between Portugal and Spain; drew lines about what areas they could conquer
Who led the way in trade? Portugal
What was the Golden Century of Spain? gold trade and spices that caused inflation in spain; expelled Jew and muslims-some of its best business people and farmer; price revolution
Who was the first to reach the tip of Africa? Bartholomew Diaz; called it the Cape of Good Hope (1487
Created by: 3j0mk1