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Basal Ganglia

WVSOM -- Medical Neuroscience -- Basal Ganglia

What is the function of the basal ganglia? consultant to the cerebral cortex. Provides a link between the idea of movement and the motor expression of that idea
When does neuronal activity of the basal ganglia occur? BEFORE a particular movement begins
What do lesions of the basal ganglia cause? disturbances in the initiation or cessation of a motor event.
What do disturbances in the function of the descending pathway result in? paralysis or paresis
How do neuronal circuits within the basal ganglia put together sequences of movements? thru reverberating loops between thenuclei
Where are the movements of the basal ganglia seen? handwriting, walking facial expression, a lay up…more complex, hierarchically organized sequences
What are the 3 nuclei of the basal ganglia? caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus
What are the nuclei of the basal ganglia also called? corpus striatum
What forms the lentiform nucleus? the putanem and globus pallidus
What is the neostriatum? caudate nucleus and putamen
What nuclei are closely associated with the basal ganglia? substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus
How is the globus pallidus divided? medial and lateral (GPm and GPl)
What are the 2 neoronal inputs to the basal ganglia? corticostriatal fibers and substania nigra
What is the substantia nigra ? midbrain structure that arises form dopaminergic neurons and deliver dopamine
What is the effect of dopamine on neurons? varies depending on the neuron
What is the effect of dopamine on D1 receptors? excitatory
What is the effect of dopamine on D2 receptors? inhibitory
What are the neural outputs from the basal ganglia? from the GPm to the ventral lateral and ventral anterior nuclei of the thalamus which then project to the cerebral cortex
Where are corticostriatal fibers projecting from and why is that important? pyramidal cells and use glutamate so it will increase the firing of the post-synaptic neurons
What will activating an inhibitory neuron do? decrease the activity of the following excitatory neuron and decrease exitoatory input to the end target
What will inhibit an inhibitory neuron do? reduce activity of the first inhibitory neuron and will reduce the activity of the following inhibitory neuron and will release the end target from inhibition.
What is disinhibition? inhibiting an inhibiting neuron
What are the symptoms parkinson’s disease? akinesia, bradykinesia, rididity, tramor at rest
What is the pathology of Parkinson’s? loss of dopaminergic neurons of the SN that project to the neostriatum. This disinhibits the indirect pathway and removes a source of activation of the direct pathway
What are the symptoms of Ballismus? violent flinging movement occurring in a proximal musculature
What is Ballismus? disorder that is the result of damage to the subthalamic nucleus, that modulates basal ganglia output thru the pallidum and nigra. Part of the indirect pathway-. lesions of the subthalamic nucleus would lead to increased motor output
What is huntington’s chorea? genetic disorder that is progressive. It is a loss of cells in striatum that give rise to indirect pathways. Result is increased motor output from cerebral cortex with accompanying hyperkinetic disburbance. Looks like a robotic movement
What is the limbic Loop? neuronal circuit that connects the nucleus accumbens to the basal ganglia. Involved with giving motor expressions to emotions and is rich in dopamine neuron endings.
What is bradykinesia, hypokinesia? slowed movements
What is rigidity? resistance to passive movements
What is dystonia? sustained abnormal distorted positions
What is athetosis? twisting, writhing limb movements
What is chorea? continuous involuntary movemtns
What is ballismus? flinging movements of the limbs
What are tics? brief action preceded by urge and followed by relief
What is myoclonus? sudden muscular jerk
What is tremor? rhytmic semirhythemic oscillating movements
Created by: tjamrose