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A&P of skin and soft

WOCN program

Epidermis characteristics Outermost layer of skin, avascular, turnover time usually 28 days
Layers of epidermis Stratum corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, basale (aka germinativum)
Stratum Corneum structures Dead keratinocytes, thin, stacked, anucleated, cells filled with keratin, stratum has lipid matrix, originate in the basal layer, have fully differentiated, shed daily
Stratum corneum function Protection against aqueous, chemical, physical assault Thickness varies with age, gender and disease
Keratin Tough fibrous insoluble protein that is primary component of skin, hair and nails
Stratum lucidum structure 1-5 cells thick, has lysosomal enzymes, only found in thick skin areas- palms and soles of feet, is translucent
Stratum lucidum function Degrades nucleus and organelles of keratinocytes
Stratum granulosum structure flattened cells, contain keratohyalin granules, Odland bodies
Stratum granulosum function has Odland bodies that produce lipids and enzymes, the mortar of the epidermis, provides barrier to water loss
Stratum spinosum structure has keratinocytes, Langerhans cells
Stratum spinosum function Provide adhesion between cells, provides resistance against mechanical forces, synthesize keratin filaments
Stratum basale structure Aka germinativum, inner most layer, basal layer, next to basement membrane, active cells,, has rete's pegs, melanocytes, epidermal stem cells
Stratum basale function is reproductive layer, proliferating keratinocytes, anchors the epidermis via Retes pegs cells start here and migrate upwards
Basement membrane zone structure 2 zones- lamina lucida and lamina densa , has hemidesmosomes for adhesion fibronectin is the major protein
Basement membrane zone function Anchors the epidermis to the dermis- this is the layer that is affected blister formation, full thickness wounds and third degree burns in wound healing the BMZ is disrupted and must be reformed
Dermis structure 2 layers, papillary and reticular fibroblasts present, is vascular and innervated is 2-4mm thick ground substance present, contains collagen and elastin, glands and hair follicles
Dermis function protection, connective tissue
Papillary dermis structure just below Retes ridges, has pappliae that connect with Retes, capillary loops that supply O2 and nutrients via BMZ, lymph vessels present
Papillary dermis function Supply O2 and nutrients to stratum basale
Reticular dermis structure contains sebaceous glands, hair follicles, sweat glands,contains most of the connective tissue , has fibroblasts, mast cells, and macrophages
Reticular dermis function supports the skin, has connective tissue and blood vessels gives skin it's strength and elasticity
Dermal proteins Collagen and elastin
Collagen Fibrous protein with high tensile strength
Elastin Coiled fibers that allow for skin to return to shape
Hypodermis structure Subcutaneous fat,
Hypodermis function Attaches dermis to underlying structures, insulates, distributes pressure
Skin functions barrier/protection, Vit D synthesis, thermoregulation, sensation, insulation, immunity
protective functions Protection against pathogens, UVR, fluid loss, environmental irritants
Thermoregulation Barrier between outside and internal environment to maintain body temp, circulation and sweating are mechanisms
explain Sensation Nerve receptors perceive - pain, touch, temp, itch and pressure - also a protective mechanism - burning itching and tickling are basic sensations
Vit D synthesis UVR converts a sterol to cholecalciferol, then is converted to calcitrol
Skin immune system Langerhans cells, tissue macrophages, mast cells, AMPs (antimicrobial peptides)
Langerhans cells Antigen presenting cells present to T cells
explain Tissue macrophages Bacteriocidal, tumoricidal, antigen presenters, secrete growth factors, cytokines, atherogenisis, coagulation, wound healing and remodeling
Mast cells Usually in reticular dermis, release histamines, chemotactic agents - involved in allergic responses, inflammatory diseases
acid mantle inhibits pathogenic growth, 4-6.5
Merkel cells Sense light touch- are in rete pegs, near hair follicles, , are mechanreceptors-
Meissner corpuscles Touch reception
Pacinian corpuscles Pressure, coarse touch vibration and tension
What separates the 2 major layers of the skin Basement membrane zone
How long does it take a cell to go from stratum basale to corneum 14 - 28 days
Retes pegs Epidermal protrusions of the basal layer that point downward into the dermis
Melanocytes Approx. the same # in all skin types, in basal layer, melanin is in the dendritic process as melanosomes
Factors that alter skin characteristics Age, hydration, sun, soaps, nutrition, medications, disease
How do Meds effect skin characteristics Can alter skin flora, alter inflammatory response, cause dermatitis slow wound healing can cause photosensitivity photo toxicity .
skin ph ranges from ___ to ___ with a mean of ____ 4,6.8, 5.5
Created by: Beth Perry



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